Ancient china

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2. Cities grew along the banks of tworivers Isolated culture due to geography Civilization developed with fewoutside influences Borders: o East: Yellow Sea, East China Sea, Pacific Ocean o West: Taklimakan Desert o North: Gobi Desert o Southwest: Himalayan Mountains Gobi Desert is a cold desert. 3. Two River Systems Flow toward the Pac. Ocean Chang Jiang (Yangtze): central China Huang He (Yellow): northern China North China Plaino Land between the riverso Rich farmlando Center of Chinese Civilization 4. Varied Climate Like the US West: dry Northeast: cold winters; warm summers Southeast: mild winters; hot, rainy summers What crops are grown in China? 5. Chinese & US Climates:A Comparison 6. 1766 BC: dynasty established Claimed to have thepermission of the gods Controlled portion of the NorthChina Plain Made war with nomadic people Treated parents & ancestorswith great respect No strong central govt; familymembers ruled distant lands 7. Developing Language Developed pictograph writing;symbols=words Educated person knew 10,000characters Can learn written Chinese withoutbeing able to speak it What is the advantage of alanguage that you can learnwithout speaking? 8. 1027 BC: defeated the Shang Rise of the Zhou created a pattern: dynastic cycle Rulers must keep the Mandate of Heaven Distant lands ruled by lords pledged to support the Zhou When lords grew in strength, they began to fight 9. Powerful govt with strict laws will keep order People will only do good if forced to Harsh punishments needed to make people afraid to dowrong 10. Shang Yang: those who fail toreport lawbreakers should bepunished Under Legalism, books wereburned and those whoquestioned the govt werearrested 11. Confucius (551-479 BC) Order can be kept if everyone hasrespect for each other Leaders should serve as goodexamples Lower members of society should obeythose above them Ideas collected in a book: Analects 12. Each relationship has its own duties and code of conduct Father and son Elder brother and younger brother Husband and wife Friend and friend Ruler and subject What is the nature of these relationships? 13. Filial piety: treating parentsand elders with respect Authority should berespected Confucianism eventuallyadopted by Chinese rulers Guiding force that shapedChinese culture 14. Laozi (500s BC) All humans must find a way (Dao) to live inharmony with nature Questions of right and wrong are pointless People would be content with their simple,everyday lives, in harmony, and free ofdesire. Govt should leave people alone 15. Yin (black): cold, dark, and mysterious Yang (white): warm, bright, and light Both forces complement each other Each changes & evolves 16. Started by Shi Huangdi Lasted from 221 202 BC Unified China after warring-statesperiod Legalistic ruler Conquered neighbors andexpanded the empire 17. Forced nobles to live atcapital Built highways and irrigationprojects to unite China Began linking existingdefensive walls, starting theGreat Wall of China Huangdi died in 210 BC Son took over, but wasquickly overthrown 18. 202 BC 220 AD Liu Bang first emperor Lowered taxes and punishmentsless harsh Created a bureaucracy to helprun the government Created a test based onConfucianism for these scholar-officials 19. Liu Bang died in 195 BC Succeeded by his wife, Empress Lu She ruled on half of their young son, whom she outlived She continued to rule by putting infants on the throne Upon her death in 180 BC, all members of her family were put to death 20. Wudi ruled from 141-87 BC Martial Emperor used war toexpand the empire Conquered northern Vietnamand northern Korea Chased nomadic invaders outof northern China Conquered people wereencouraged to assimilate 21. Most people worked as farmers Farmers lived in small villages near their land Rich farmers had oxen to plow their lands South: rice North: wheat Families had personal vegetable gardens Meat and fish were expensive 22. Centers of trade, education, and government Merchants, government workers, craftspeople Problems of modern cities: crowded, street gangs 23. During the Han dynasty, only the Chinese knew how tomake silk. Desired luxury item Roads linking China to Eurasian were built to trade silk One of the first global trading networks 24. Cities sprouted up around the trail. Goods leaving China: silk, paper, jade, pottery Goods coming to China: sesame seeds, oil, metals, preciousstones, Central Asian horses 25. Silk Roads also brought ideasand customs to and from China(cultural diffusion) During the Han dynasty, Buddhistmissionaries from India broughtBuddhism to China Buddhism gained many followersafter the fall of the Han. Why? 26. Agricultural Improvements Two-bladed plow Wheelbarrow Water Millso Using water power to grind grain Collar Harness for horseso Allowed horses to pull heavier loads 27. Paper 105 AD Made from old rags, tree bark, and fibers from hemp How did the invention of paper help the Chinese people? 28. Silk For 3,000 years, only the Chinese knew how to make Used to get silver and gold from the west At one time one pound of silk = one pound of gold How much is a pound of gold worth today? $24,522.77