Ancient China

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Transcript of Ancient China

  • 1.Ancient ChinaAshleigh, Gillian and Keith

2. Time The story of Ancient China is told in traditional historical recordsthat refer as far back to the Five Emperors and Three Sovereignsabout 5,000 years ago this is enforced by archaeological recordsdating to the 16th century BC. China is one of the worlds oldest continuous civilizations. 221 BC is the commonly accepted year when China became unifiedunder a large kingdom or empire. China was first united by Qin Shi Huang in 221 BC. 3. The Three Sovereigns, weresaid to be god-kings ordemigods who initiated veryimportant aspects of theancient Chinese civilizationand culture these being:agriculture, fishing, herbalmedicine, writing, and thedrinking of tea, and in somecases created men andanimals. The Five Emperors werelegends that were morallyperfect sage-kings. 4. GeographyThe geography of ancient China can be convenientlydivided up into three regions: 1) The Yangtze and Yellow Rivers2) The Gobi andTaklamakan Deserts3) The Himalayas In ancient China, theimportance of the Yangtze and Yellow Rivers is hard to overstate. People mostlysettled along these rivers, anddifferent settlements were ruled by different kings 5. THE HIMALAYAS YELLOW RIVER YANGTZE RIVERTAKLA MAKAN DESERT GOBI DESERT 6. Economy Ancient Chinese people traded salt, iron, fish, cattle, and silk. Silk was traded for goods and services Silk route Through the famous Silk Route, they also traded externally: goods fromChina could wind up in Greece.At the eastern end of the route, the Chinese traded with people fromIndia, providing them with silk and getting lapislazuli, coral, jade, glass, and pearls in exchange. Fish, farmed and irrigated the land The ancient Chinese first used cowrie shells for money in China as earlyas 1800 BC. Then people used metal imitations of cowrie shells, and then metal stringsof beads called cash. 7. Economy Cowry shells were used asthe medium of exchange / money in the late XiaDynasty (21st century BC). Those from the ShangDynasty usually had teeth on one side and a hole for stringing on theflat polished other side. As natural cowries werelimited in quantity, copies made of stone, otherseashells, bone and bronzewere also in circulation. Bronze replicas of cowries became the first Chinese cast coins. 8. Society In ancient China there was a massive demographic gapbetween farmers and kings and the nobles. The farmers were far more in population numbers and weremade to work very hard for little money. The nobles lived in palaces while the farmers survived in tinyhuts. The nobles were highly regarded and lived with greatriches. Painting of five Han nobles conversing and wearing elegant clothing 9. Position ofWomen Male domination was common in ancient China. The women were asked totake care of the children and household. They never hadtheir choice in marriage andwere not included in anydecision making.The ancient Chinese had many peculiar customs onebeing foot binding.Girls at the age of pubertywere made to go through thispainful custom. Their toes were broken and bandaged.This normally reduced the of their feet. This processcontinued for a long time. 10. Society: Religion and Art Ancient China practiced The ancient Chinese weremainly three religions master creators, artists, craftsmen Buddhism and warlords. Confucianism They developed many martial arts and other art Taoism forms such as calligraphy. They had a rich spiritualheritage and they believedin YIN and YANG - themale and female energieswhich complimented eachother. 11. Yin - Yang This Symbol represents theancient Chineseunderstanding of howthings work (Male andFemale energies thatcomplement each other)The outer circle represents"everything", while theblack and white shapeswithin the circle representthe interaction of twoenergies, called "yin"(black) and "yang"(white), which causeeverything to happen. 12. Trade and Production Many ethnic groups in the ancient timesHan people, mainly living in the yellow river areas and Yangtze RiverSome minority groups in the north and south YANGTZE RIVERYELLOWRIVER 13. Trade Routs "The Silk Road" is a special term which describes the traderoute between the Central Asia and China. 5000 mile longtrade route. In ancient times, Chinese people transportedsilk, tea and other products to exchange for horses with smallkingdoms in west of China. The famous explorer Marco Poloopened this trade route to the Middle East, Western Europeand North Africa. Over time the Silk Road became one of themost important trade route linking China and Europe.. From 206 BC a sea route was added to the silk road landroutes. Sea route began at mouth of the Red River, through SouthEastAsia to Sri Lanka and India, then to Persia, Axum andRome.. 14. Trades along the route were conducted by centralAsian Merchants from who broughthorses, cattle, furs, hides and luxuries such as ivory andjade. New goods were also introduced to the Chinese bythe traders such asCucumber, walnut, sesame, figs, alfalfa andpomegranate, and new skills such as using grapes tomake wine, which enriched Chinas ancient civilizationChinese emperor Wu Di (141-87 BC) dispatched missionsto the west , thirteen years later missioner returned. 119 BC lead a second expedition to the west. Effectivelyestablishing diplomatic relations, beginning a process ofregular diplomatic missions to the Chinese capital. 15. Relationships 16. RelationshipsCONFUCIUS: Latin name for chinese philosopher Kung Fu-tze. 551-479 BC.Created ethical system called CONFUCIANISM system of ideal humanrelationships based on happiness, respect for elders and family unity.Human behaviour and contactNot religionFormed the basis of society, government and justice.Practiced correctly would bring order.Each person was to strive to bePoliteHonestHardworkingRespectfulWisePower and right to rule belonged to superiors over subordinated:Older over younger --- Each having to give obedience and respect tosuperior.Man over woman --- Superior owed loving respect to inferior.Emphasised importance of education. Chinese Agricultural Productivity resulted inn relationships with other countries in trading. 17. Marriage Arranged Bride moves into husbands home. Becomes daughter to husbands mother If widowed, will take care of in-laws and children Very improper to remarry. Pressure for son Carry on family name Daughters unwanted burden and cannot care for aging parents.Sometimes left to die or sold in poorer families. Reason for men to have more than one wife. Wealth and social status Unfamiliar until wedding day Wear red believed meaning of foreshadowed delight. 18. Culture Girls and women were seen as weak and submissive Boys and men stronger, active and dominant Woman had to behave respectfully, put others first, never mention theirown good deeds or deny faults, endured insults and mistreatment, went tobed late, woke up early, never put off work, served their husbands, rarelylaugh nor told jokes .. Kept to them selves With the influence of Conficius, Chinese have become more reserved. Some Chinese cultures: Chinese arts Architecture New years Martial arts Chinese are not so much religious as they are superstitious. Many different gods ancestors. Mandate of heaven 19. Dwellings Poor dwellings One roomed Mud brick Thatch roof High wall surrounding house made of earth No windows, just one door Screen wall as soon as entered ( short wall which kept people from seeing into court yard.) Rich dwellings Two stories Balconies Courtyard Ponds Built with wood Structural principles of Chinese architecture remains unchanged. As old as Chinese civilisation 20. Transport Inland water transport 215bc first contour canal built 210bc, extensive network of roads, 4000 miles of imperial highways. Romans used throat and girth harnesses, choked horses slowed themdown. Chinese made improvements, placed force load on horses chest ..Horse pulled load 6times greater Same path followed by stirrup .. Chinese invention .. Greatly improved ability to ride a horse. 21. Transport 22. Communication China considered oldest civilization in the world Worlds oldest records of continuously used writing system Many of the ancient characters still used today Symbols represent whole concepts and carry complete meaning Most ancient Chinese symbols discovered in form of oracle bonescripts symbols etched into animal bone and shell Also discovered symbols etched in to bronze vessels. 23. InventionsPrintmakingPapermaking 24. Inventions Paper AD 105 - the year in which Early Chinese paperpapermaking was invented.appears to have been madeIn that year, historical by from a suspension ofrecords show that the hemp waste ininvention of paper waswater, washed, soaked, andreported to the ChineseEmperor by Tsai Lun, anbeaten to a pulp with aofficial of the Imperial Court. wooden mallet.Recent archaeologicalinvestigations - the actualinvention of papermakingsome 200 years earlier. 25. InventionsToilet Paper interesting fact Compass The compass was invented This invention wasduring the Feudalinvented during the Sui Period, in 4th century BC.Dynasty, about 581-618The first compass wasAD. created out of bronze andlodestone. It was the Chinese whofirst exchanged water to The pointer was a spoontoilet paper to clean created out of lodestonethemselves. From then, this The plate was bronze.invention moved all overthe world. 26. Chinese Cuisine Food in China has been the foundation of life for many centuries. Rice is a well know crop in Southern China and has been grown sincethe fourth mellenium BC. Millet, a well known crop in Northern Chinahas been grown since the fifth millenium BC. The first Chinese crop was grown in the upper Yellow River Valley. 27. Food Rice was the first grain that people Tea grows wild in Ch