Alexander the Great

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Alexander the Great. Philip II. Ruled Macedonia from 359-336 B.C. and transformed it into a powerful military machine Moved into northern Greece and met little resistance due to residual effects of Peloponnesian War By 338 he had Greece under his control. Macedonia. Alexander the Great. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Alexander the Great

Alexander the Great

Philip II

Ruled Macedonia from 359-336 B.C. and transformed it into a powerful military machineMoved into northern Greece and met little resistance due to residual effects of Peloponnesian WarBy 338 he had Greece under his controlMacedonia

Alexander the GreatPhilip intended to use Greece as a launching pad to invade Persia, but he was assassinated before he could begin his planInstead the invasion of Persia would be left for Philips son Alexander who was just 20 when Philip was assassinatedAlexander inherited from his father the most perfectly organized, trained, and equipped army of ancient times.J.F.C. Fuller, The Generalship of Alexander the GreatConquests of AlexanderIonia and Anatolia333Syria, Palestine, Egypt332Mesopotamia331Persepolis331King of Persia330India327Returns to Susa324Dies (age 33)323Warfare in the Age of AlexanderPhalanx: A formation of infantry carrying overlapping shields and long spears, developed by Philip II and used by Alexander the Great

Warfare in the Age of AlexanderHoplite The main melee warrior of the Macedonian army. Worked mainly in the tight phalanx formation, creating impregnable lines that often left the enemy demoralized.

Hoplites in Action

Warfare in the Age of AlexanderAlexanders elite cavalry, the offensive arm of his army, and his elite guard. They would be used in conjunction with the phalanx. The phalanx would fix the enemy in place and then the companion cavalry would attack on the flank. Alexander would lead the charge with his cavalry, normally in a wedge formation. These troops would also protect the flanks of the Macedonian line during battle. Warfare in the Age of AlexanderSieges involved the surrounding and blockading of a town or fortress by an army trying to capture it. A variety of weapons were built to hurl projectiles over city walls, scale or batter the walls, and transport soldiers over them.

Tyre if Alexander deserves permanent commemoration as a general, then it is above all in his capacity as a besieger, and of all his sieges Tyre was his masterpiece.Paul Cartledge, Alexander the Great, 147

Tyrian Fire Ship Burns the Towers

Gaugamela (Arbela)Most agree that this was Alexanders greatest set-piece battle.Paul Cartledge, Alexander the Great, 151.Gaugamela (Arbela)The military genius of AlexanderThe Persians still relied on multitudes. Alexander was introducing new tactics.Theodore Dodge, Alexander the Great, 385.

Flying column reservesThe wedge to penetrate an openingStriking not merely with mass but at the right place and timeAll around securityDiscipline of troopsAbility to determine the enemy weakness and seize opportunity rapidly

Alexander and the Principles of WarManeuverMassSurpriseSecurityObjectiveEconomy of ForceOffensiveUnity of CommandSimplicityThe End of the Empire

"The Marriage of Alexander the Great and Roxanna" by Ishmail Parbury AlexanderMarried Roxanna and had his men also intermarryAdopted Eastern dress and habitsPublicly insisted upon his descent from the godsBegan giving key positions to PersiansThe Macedonians were tired of campaigning and resented the changes in Alexanders behavior and become mutinousAlexander died in June 323, perhaps as a result of poisoningAfter AlexanderAfter Alexander died, his generals jockeyed for power and by 275 they had divided up his kingdom into three large statesAntigonus took Greece and MacedonPtolemy took EgyptSeleuces took the former Achaemenid empireThe period of Alexander and his successors is called the Hellenistic period to reflect the broad influence of Greek culture beyond Greeces borders