Alexander the Great

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Alexander the Great. Year 10 History Knox Grammar School. Where is Macedonia? . - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Transcript of Alexander the Great

Alexander the Great

Alexander the GreatYear 10 HistoryKnox Grammar SchoolWhere is Macedonia?

Macedonia at the time of Phillip II and AlexanderBetween 359 and 336 BC Macedonia was transformed by Philip II, Alexanders father, from a backward, peripheral kingdom of farmers and herders to the leader of the Greek world. Under Alexander, Macedonia would become the worlds No1 super power.Just before Philip II was assassinated ( some say Alex was involved) he had planned to lead a Greek and Macedonian Army to invade the Persian Empire. The Persian Empire was the largest and most powerful empire in the world at that time..The Greek city-states after successfully warding off an imperial Persian conquest in the fifth century B.C. fell into civil war that sapped their energies and resources. Nevertheless Greek art, culture and technology became pre-eminent in the world of that time. The Persian Empire made great use of Greek mercenaries in its armies and navies. Some wealthy Persians came to Greece for an education.In the north, Macedonia under Phillip II emerged as a battle-hardened militaristic power that conquered the feuding city states of Greece proper.

Would you take on the Persians?

Alexanders ParentsOlympiasAs a mature man he fell in love at first sight with Olympias, the twelve year daughter of the king of Epirus, and married her. Epirus was in what is now Albania. About three years after her marriage Olympias gave birth to Alexander. Olympias grew up to be a strong-willed, ruthless woman and became interested in some exotic religious cults. Phillip stopped going to bed with her after he discovered that she sometimes kept snakes in her bed. He took other wives and he and Olympias became estranged. But they did have one child, Alexander

King Phillip IIPhillip II was king of Macedon although usually only credited with being Alexanders father, his life was incredibly interesting and gives a great deal of background as to the formation of Alexanders character. Read about him on the following website:http://www.historyofmacedonia.org/AncientMacedonia/PhilipofMacedon.html

Alexanders ChildhoodThe most famous story of Alexander's childhood is the story of the horse, Buchephalus. The name means ox-head. The horse was so-named because of the ox-head mark he bore he bore on his coat. Phillip had spotted Buchephalus as a magnificent horse and acquired him but Buchephalus was too tough to break to riding. Phillip announced that he was going to get rid of him. Alexander, a ten year old, asked his father to give him the horse to tame. Alexander worked with Buchephalus, always keeping him facing the sun so he would not be startled by the sight of his shadow. When Alexander tamed Buchephalus he showed Phillip who remarked, "Son, find yourself another kingdom because when you grow up Macedonia will not be big enough for you!

Look at a re-creation - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6RBjb04X5BM

Plutarchs accountPhilonicus the Thessalian brought the horse Bucephalus to Philip, offering to sell him for thirteen talents; but when they went into the field to try him, they found him so very vicious and unmanageable, that he reared up when they endeavoured to mount him, and would not so much as endure the voice of any of Philip's attendants. Upon which, as they were leading him away as wholly useless and untractable, Alexander, who stood by, said, "What an excellent horse do they lose for want of address and boldness to manage him!" Philip at first took no notice of what he said; but when he heard him repeat the same thing several times, and saw he was much vexed to see the horse sent away, "Do you reproach," said he to him, "those who are older than yourself, as if you knew more, and were better able to manage him than they?" "I could manage this horse," replied he, "better than others do." "And if you do not," said Philip, "what will you forfeit for your rashness?" "I will pay," answered Alexander, "the whole price of the horse." At this the whole company fell a-laughing; and as soon as the wager was settled amongst them, he immediately ran to the horse, and taking hold of the bridle, turned him directly towards the sun, having, it seems, observed that he was disturbed at and afraid of the motion of his own shadow; then letting him go forward a little, still keeping the reins in his hands, and stroking him gently when he found him begin to grow eager and fiery, he let fall his upper garment softly, and with one nimble leap securely mounted him, and when he was seated, by little and little drew in the bridle, and curbed him without either striking or spurring him. Presently, when he found him free from all rebelliousness, and only impatient for the course, he let him go at full speed, inciting him now with a commanding voice, and urging him also with his heel. Philip and his friends looked on at first in silence and anxiety for the result, till seeing him turn at the end of his career, and come back rejoicing and triumphing for what he had performed, they all burst out into acclamations of applause; and his father shedding tears, it is said, for joy, kissed him as he came down from his horse, and in his transport said, "O my son, look thee out a kingdom equal to and worthy of thyself, for Macedonia is too little for thee."