Alexander the Great
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ALEXANDER THE GREAT
PRESENTATION : GROUP MEMBERS :Talha Asif (14k-2246)Sohaib Hashmi (14k-2121)Asfar Abbas (14k-2295)Fawzan Ahmed (14k-2330)Hamza Masood (14k-2198)Umair Siddiqui (14k-2222)Abdur Rehman (14k-2429)
TOPICS :Alexander The GreatThe Mauryan EmpireThe Kushans ALEXANDER THE GREAT BIOGRAPHYNAME : Alexander the GreatBIRTH DATE : 20,July,356BCDEATH DATE : 13,June,323BCLIFE SPENT : 33 years EDUCATION : Temple of the Nymps at Meiza (where Aristotle tutored him)PLACE OF BIRTH : Pella,MacedoniaNICKNAME : King of Babylon, King of Asia, King of the Four Quarters of the WorldAS A KING : 336-323 BC
EARLY EDUCATIONAlexander received his earliest education under the tutelage of Leonidas. Alexander's next tutor was Lysimachus, who used role-playing to capture the restless boy's attention. In 343 B.C., King Philip II hired the philosopher Aristotle to tutor Alexander at the Temple of the Nymphs at Meiza.
WHY THE GREAT ??In a very early age , he conqurered more than half world , approximately 10 years .
Alexander spread Greek culture, ensuring cultural diffusion and the survival of the qualities of classical Greece
FIRST BATTLE 338 BC , In battle of Charonea
He showed his all skills in this battle , although he was only 18BEING A KINGIn 336BC when his father passed away he become The king of Macedonia.
He started planning to defeat Persian Empire. In 333 BC Alexander Defeated the larger force of KingDarius IIIof Persia at the Battle of Issos.
In 332 BC he conqueredSyria.
In 331 BC, he conquered (Egypt) where he founded the city ofAlexandria.FINAL BATTLE WITH DARIUSAt the Battle of Gaugamela, fought in 331 B.C.
Darius III was captured and killed by his own troops.(Bessus)
Alexander Killed Bessus
Alexander Killed two of his closest friends
The killing of Parmerio and Murder of Cleitus
The two mystries of Alexander the Great
Killed his own man and his mans son
Killed his own close friend while being drunkThe Gordian KnotThe legend behind the ancient knot was that the man who could untie it was destined to rule the entire world.
Alexander simply slashed the knot with his sword and unraveled it.
The final campaigns
In 327 BC , He defeated King Porus.
Alexanders days in central Asia were not all unhappy. After his troops had captured a fortress at a place called Sogdian Rock in 327 B.C. he met Roxana, the daughter of a local ruler. The two married and, at the time of Alexanders death, they had an unborn son.
Alexanders Empire :
Less known Facts of well known AlexanderAlexander was one of the few kings(leaders) of the world who had reign(kingdom) over more than half of the world along with Gengis Khan or more commonly known as Changaiz Khan.
Whenever an army conquers a land it always bring new reforms to that place regarding laws and state affairs.Due to this reason, in his time many cities and towns were named after him and some of them still exists today like, Alexandria - a city in Egypt or better known as 'Iskandariya' in the local language.
According to historians it is said that Sad-e-Sikandri, a wall in Iran, was built by him.
Alexander entered in the subcontinent through North of Pakistan near Swat. In order to enter in this region he climbed with his enormous army the famous peak known as 'Pir Sar'.
When he entered the subcontinent his army resided in a small valley of Chitral, known as 'Kailash' or 'Kafiristan'. Due to this reason people living in that valley even today, follow the culture and religion of Alexander and his people.
It is also said that, his wife known as 'Roxanne' belonged to that area.When Alexander along with his army passed through the Khewra, the horses of his army started licking the rocks and ground there and hence he became the one who discovered salt mines in Khewra.
When Alexander and his man saw cotton fields for the first time in subcontinent, they were in a state of amazement and thought that in this region wool is grown on plants!
In Punjab, near Jhelum Alexander built a monument for his beloved horse who died there.
Alexanders life in subcontinent had a great impact on its culture and language. Many proverbs were made which included his name and many poets wrote their poetry on Alexander.
The story of Zulqarnain (two horn headed) and Alexander.
Final DaysAlexander's campaign of domination had started when he crossed the Hellespont to conquer the Persian Empire (seeAlexander Defeats the Persians, 331 BC). Victorious after three major battles and the death of the Persian leader Darius III in 330 BC, Alexander continued his march eastward into the area to the west and north of India. He vanquished all who challenged his authority and would have extended his dominion into India and the lands beyond if his army had not balked, forcing him to abandon his plans to continue his march eastward.
Now that he had returned to Baghdad after years of military campaigning, Alexander took the opportunity to rest and to plan his next conquest.
Alexanders DeathAfter returning to Baghdad after years of military campaigning, Alexander took the opportunity to rest and to plan his next conquest. On May 29 he attended a dinner given by a close friend. Alexander joined in the heavy drinking during the day-long event. Complaining that he did not feel well, he went to bed. Alexander's health steadily deteriorated as fever wracked his body. Finally, too weak to leave his bed, the conqueror of the world died ten days after he was stricken.Cause of DeathThe exact cause of Alexander's death is unknown. Historians have debated the issue for centuries, attributing it to poison, malaria, typhoid fever or other maladies.
What is agreed upon is that the Macedonian king died in early June 323 BC while suffering a high fever that had lasted ten days.After his deathAfter his death, his empire was carved up among his generals.
Hence not maintaining the same power and unity his empire soon disintegrated.
Some rebels stood up to get their land back while some conquerors came to conquer the weaken empire.
In subcontinent, the areas that were under Alexander, after his death came under his generals.
Seeing the empire was weakening, Mauryans started rebellion along with establishing their own empire.
THE MAURYAN EMPIRE
TOPICSMargadhaChandraGupta MauriyaFormation of Mauryan EmpireMauryan governmentEconomical conditionTradeCitiesRetirement of chandraguptaBindusara
MargadhaOne of the largest states of India.located in the eastern part of the Ganges plain.currently a part of modern Bihar, eastern Uttar Pradesh and Bengal (eastern side).Capital is pataliputra(patna)
ChandraGupta Mauriyafounder of the Maurya dynastyruled for 34 yearsChanakya: the chief advisor
Formation of Mauryan EmpireDrove out the successors of Alexander from india.Started a rebellion to dethrone nanda king.Conquered northern India and easternmost areas till afghanistan.
Mauryan governmentArthashastra: the chanakyas book.Division of administrative districts.hierarchy of officials.strong espionage systemRules were made even for the king
common economic systemGood stress on agricultureFacilities to the farmersCentral tax collectionTradeThe Khyber Passimportant trade partnersIndias export goods
CitiesFormation of capital.Highly populated peaceful city
Retirement of chandraguptaUndisputed ruler.United the whole northern india.Turned towards religion.
BindusaraSon of chandragupta.Run the administration smoothlyFurther conquests.
THE KUSHAN EMPIREBACTARIAN GREEKSGREEKS GAINED INDEPENDENCE FROM SELEUCIDSASHOKAs RULE WAS WEAKEND DEMITRUS A BACTARINA GREEK RULER CONQURERD KABUL VALLEY AND HIS SUCCESSORS CHARGED TOWARDS NORTHERN INDIAFALL OF SUNGATHE HINDU GENERAL PHUSYAMITRA SUNGA DEFEATED THE LAST OF MAURYAN PRINCE A BATTLE BETWEEN GREEKS AND SUNGA WAS FAUGHT WHICH STOPED THE NORTH INDIAN CONQUESTBUT SUNGA POWER FELL AND HIS DECLINE STARTEDMENANDERs PERIODMANADER ONE OF THE GREATEST GREEK RULER WHO RULE KABUL VALLEY AND THE PAKISTAN AREA INDEPENDENT OF THE BACTARIAN EMPIRE.. HE WAS KNOWN AS MILIAN BY THE BUDDHISTHE RUBILT TAXILA AND PUSHKALAVATI (NOW CHARSADDHA)THESE TOWNS WERE THE CENTER OF TRADE AND WERE THE TWIN CAPITAL CITIES BUT BY NOW ALEXANDERS FAVOURITE GOD DIONYSUS WAS BEING WORSHIPED THE CENTRAL ASIADURING THIS TIME HUGH CHANGES OCCURRED IN CENTRAL ASIA AND MOST OF THE KINGDOM FALL AND RISE A NEW ERA OF MIGRATION STARTED JUST LIKE THE ARYANS MIGRATED THOUSANDS YEAR BACK(MIGRATION STRATED FROM CENTRAL ASIA TO SOUTHWARD)THE KUSHANS PERIODTHE KUSHAN EMERGED FORM THE KUSHANA TRIBES WHICH LATER MERGED TO FORM KUSHANA KINGDOM OF BACTARIA
THE KUSHANA KING KUJULA KADPHISES TOOK GANDHARA FROM PARTHIANS .THE KUSHANA RULE WAS EXTENDED AS FAR AS MATHURA IN THE NORTH INDIA THE KUSHANA ATTACKED CHINESE BUT DEFEATED AND HAD TO GIVE TIRBUTEHOW DID THEY RISE
KUSHANA RISE AND BECAME PROSPEROUS AND POWERFULL BY CONTROLLING AND TAXING THE TRAE ROUTES ALONG THE SILK ROUTS BETWEEN CHINA AND MIDITERRIANTHE TRADE AND INDUSTRYKUSHANS RULED THE TRADE WORLD THEY WERE ONCE AMOUNG THE GREATEST TRADE ROUTE HOLDERSTHEY OWNED SILK ROUTES AND THE ROUTES FROM CHINA TO NORTH INDIA AND BEYONDTHE KUSHANS COULD SEND CHINESE AND INDIAN GOODS BY MEANS LAND AND SEA.THIS SEA ROUTE WAS ONE TO THE MOST IMPORTANT OF THAT TIMETHEIR ECONOMYTHEY HAD GREAT ADVANTAGE OF JEWELLERY,PERFUMES,DYES,SPICEAND MUSLIN TEXTILE ALL THESE GOODS WERE OF HIGH DEMAND IN THE ROMAN EMPIRE THE FLOW OF GOLD AND COINS FROM ROME WAS IN SUCH A WAY THAT THE ROMAN ECONOMY HAD TO FACE GREAT SET BACKS AND SERIOUS PROBLEMS.SCIENCE,ARTS AND LITERATURETHE KAUSHAN WERE HIGHLY ADVANCED IN THE FIELD OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
AS STATED IN MANY BOOKS IT IS SAID FIRST SCIENTIFIC MEDICAL OPERATION WAS CARRIED IN THE KAUSHAN EMPIRETHEY WERE THE ONES TO WRITE LITERATURE IN SANSKRIT KAROSHTI AND BRAHMI SCRIPTSTHERE MAIN LANGUAGE WAS PRAKRIT
The origin of kushan empireFormed in India in 1st AD century.Area lye under the Greco Bactrian kingdom.Speeded from Kabul valley to indo Greek kingdom.Official language indo European Bactrian language.
Expansion between 1st and 2nd Ad century.The emerging of their greatest emperor kanishka.The time period of kanishka rule 127 Ad 152 Ad.His work for the expansion of Buddhism religion.
Their achievements: terrestrial expansion Expansion of empire from kotal ,peshawar,taxila.The migration of people from Indian subcontinent towards south east Asia.Their dominance in northern India, which includes peshawar,hindu Kush, gandhara.
Fort in batindha made by kanishka.Map of kushan empire
The decline of kushan empirethe death of vasudeva 1 in 225 Ad.The division if kushan empire into eastern and western dynasty.The invasion by Persian Sassanid.The Persian dominance.The snatching of power by dispatching kushan empire by the guptas.The emergence of Gupta dynasty.