Agenda Item 1

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Agenda Item 1. Current situation: Market trends. Beef and veal consumption robust at around 300,000 tonnes each year . Veal production has increased. Exports of beef and veal have increased since 2006. Source: GTIS. Imports somewhat level . Source: GTIS. Self-sufficiency in beef and veal . - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Agenda Item 1Current situation: Market trendsBeef and veal consumption robust at around 300,000 tonnes each year Veal production has increasedExports of beef and veal have increased since 2006

Source: GTISImports somewhat level

Source: GTISSelf-sufficiency in beef and veal %Agenda Item 2Male dairy calvesLive exports at a low levelDutch farmers boycotted UK calf trade mid 2008 following detection of bTB2012 - almost half to SpainDairy calf registrations since 2006 male & female Source : BCMS Use of sexed semen Apr 2011 Mar 2012 (DairyCo survey of breeding companies )Destination of male calves (000s)2006200720082009201020112012Female Registrations 411.1407.3434.6449.7465.2471.0480.0Male Registrations326.3330.1335.1370.3370.3371.4398.1Estimated no. males born *411.1407.3430.3440.9451.6452.9457.1Estimated no. disposed on-farm84.877.295.270.681.481.559.0Live exports80.763.851.41.00.713.38.0Estimated no. retained in GB 245.6266.3283.7369.3369.6358.1390.1From 2008 onwards, applying a 1% year on year increase in the number of heifers born due to the use of sexed semen

Destination of dairy male calves Link between feed costs and registrations evident Rearing calf prices volatile since 2006 but have moved up per headSource : AHDB/EBLEX Ho/Fr heifersHo/Fr bullsUpwards evolution in finished cattle prices continuesEvolution of compound cereal prices since 2006Dairy male calf registrations/beef and veal imports - a stable relationship Economic prospectsTighter global & domestic supply will tend to support beef pricesMargins possible for better quality animalsHighly dependent on input pricesDomestic market for veal still underdevelopedWhat value provenence ?

Financial performance (May-Apr)Higher prices through 2011 and 2012 filtering through to improve returns, but still negative margin for many Agenda Item 3Health and welfare of dairy calves Dairy calf health and welfareCalf survival a continuing focus of attention Perinatal mortality Early stage nutrition Control of diseaseDearth of robust industry dataSpecialist rearing units more switched on to best practice ? Outcome based welfare measures for dairy cows

Colostrum (volume and quality)Too much milk does not cause scour Well fed calves develop higher immunity60% calves have inadequate colostral immunityRecommendation for 10% of body weight in critical first 6hrs14/calf added cost feeding saleable milkReinforcement of strategies/best practice Needs agreement on protocol from all parties

Emerging results from DairyCo funded CASE studentshipPerinatal mortality Mean 5.4 % (Range 1% to 13.9%)Differences in feeding regime for male calvesYes:34%, No:66%Recorded examples, males givenincreased volume of milk to prepare for salewaste milk, often in significant volumemilk powder, while heifers given fermented whole milkProportion of bull calves disposed of on farm6.3%

Keep colostrum clean bugs can double in 20 minutes in warm colostrum.

Calves have sucking response in first few hours of life take advantage of it, hard to get them onto a teat or bucket laterNutrition up to weaningA system based on feeding:10% of bodyweight (45 kg calf gets 4.5 litres)10% concentration of powder (4.5l @10% - 450 g powder) Whereas feeding: 2.5 % of bodyweight(45 kg calf @15% = 5.5l)5% concentration of powder(5.5 l @ 15% = 825 g powder)

Little more than maintenanceMaximum growth, when calf is biologically most efficientToo much milk may make stools loose but will not cause a harmful scour that needs an infection

Whole milk fed at 4.5 l /day at 13.3% solids provides 600 g of solids per day so why be so tight with powder?Disease Risk/Effect on Yield

Calf health & welfare workshopRoyal Vet College, 23 July 2013DairyCo Research Partnership (Health, welfare & nutrition)Aim to identifybest practice guidelines for calf rearinggaps to be addressed in current knowledgeFour themeshealth, welfare, housing and production economics Cross sector representationFarmers, vets, researchers, legislatorsAgenda Item 4Developments in breedingReducing heifer lossesAverage heifers calving down at 28 monthsAttrition rate of heifers during rearing period still too highHigher losses of dairy progeny from heifer calvingsManagement during first lactation Targetting better performanceDairyCo PD+ blueprint Benchmarking (e.g. Milkbench+)PhD study: Economic analysis of heifer rearing and breeding selection in UK

Current purebred genetic evaluationsDairyCo provides evaluations for major dairy breeds Pursuit of fitness traits tends to select for animals with better conformationUK genetic ranking encourages use of fitness traitsLongevity, Fertility, Mastitis, LamenessGenetic trends in all 4 areas are in a positive directionSince 2012, information available on farms herd genetic reportsHUK introduced Body Condition Score indexesSire usage for combined fitness(Note; 2007 saw major change in PLI)Current PLI review likely further emphasise fitness traits, and include a Live weight component

Use of sexed semenDairyCo survey of breeding companies indicate that sexed semen accounted for 13% of sales in 2011/12Resulting in approx. 5% skew towards female progenyConstraints to greater adoption of sexed semenReduced conception ratesLess attractive to block calving systemsLack of semen availability from elite bulls Price ?Cross breedingSince 2010, DairyCo also evaluates cross-bred animalsAndy some words on cross breeding and impact on calf price?Dairy systems modeling (Moorepark economic model)Make it easier to choose semenIndustry KT events on-going to educate farmers on use of the indexes on a pure and cross-breed basisDairyCo and Holstein UK both have websites that allow farmers to select the bulls that suits themGenomic selection

Extended lactationsIndustry trend towards increasing lactation length Modern genotypes can still be yielding significantly beyond 305 daysTheoretical advantages of 18 (or 24 month) lactationsFewer progeny reduced metabolic stress and increased longevityinsemination costsreduced number of dry days within the cow's lifetime

Extended lactationsEvidence to date indicatesFeasible, but yield level and persistency of lactation are keyDifferent cows and sire groups react differently to delayed breedingPotential for cows to get too fat, compromising subsequent lactationsEconomics not sufficiently provenBlock calving systems more challenging, need 24 month systemFurther information needed to on interactive effects of lactation pattern, diet and management before any wider recommendationsDevelopment of Carcass EBVsDairyCo/EBLEX funded study to evaluate potential of combining abattoir data with BCMS dataAlternative approach in absence of beef progeny testFeasibility study indicated Heritability estimates for net carcass weight, conformation & fat class: 0.31, 0.24, & 0.14Data challenges, registrationEBLEX in discussion with breed societies regarding funding of potential implementation phase