Adjectives - ed2go · PDF fileAdjectives . In English, adjectives, such as red, ... a red car...

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Transcript of Adjectives - ed2go · PDF fileAdjectives . In English, adjectives, such as red, ... a red car...

  • Adjectives

    In English, adjectives, such as red, large, or strong are placed before the noun. In Spanish,

    on the other hand, the adjectives are placed behind the noun.

    Therefore in English, a red car becomes a carro rojo. A large house becomes a casa grande.

    Adjectives agree in both number and gender of the object they are describing. Therefore, a red

    car, carro rojo, suddenly becomes red cars carros rojos. If the object was feminine, the

    ending would change as well. Red table, Mesa roja, becomes red tables mesas rojas.

    If the adjectives ends in an e like grande you do not need to do anything for the gender

    of the object. But you would still need to do something to make it plural so large house, casa

    grande, becomes large houses casas grandes.

  • Commands

    Commands are used to tell people what to do, as in stand here, raise your hand, or sit down.

    In Spanish, there are 4 ways to make commands formal and informal, singular and plural.

    For the sake of ease, we will just stick with formal, singular commands as most likely, you will

    be talking to one person at a time and often with people that you do not know well.

    I will demonstrate with 3 verbs an ar, er, and ir verb.

    There are 3 main steps to making a command in Spanish:

    Start with the yo form of the present tense. (So take off the ending and an o.)

    Then drop the -o ending.

    Finally, add the new endings: For ar verbs, add an -e and for er and ir verbs, and an a. So now

    you have tome, coma, and escriba.

    This formula also works with irregular verbs. The key is to have it conjugated to the yo form

    first.

    Next, drop the o ending. Notice that the irregular stem is still there.

    Then add your new endings, so now you have tenga, diga, and ponga.

    The key here is to not get overwhelmed, but to have a better understanding of written

    commands and why they are that way.

  • Comparisons

    In English, we often use the letters -er at the end of word to compare to objects, such as

    smaller, prettier, or nicer.

    In Spanish, we follow a different formula. We say something is more than (ms que) or less

    than (menos que) when we are comparing two different objects. For example, la chica es mas

    grande que el chico. The girl is larger than the boy.

    El caballo blanco es menos rpido que el caballo castao.

    The white horse is slower (less fast) than the brown horse.

    Lets say that you want to compare things that are the same. This formula is a bit different.

    You would say, Tan plus your adverb or adjective, followed by como. Such as El chico es tan

    grande como el otro chico.

    The boy is as large as the other boy.

    El caballo blanco es tan rpido como el caballo castao.

    The white horse is as fast as the brown horse.

    In summary, here are your main formulas when comparing objects.

  • Definite and Indefinite Articles

    In Spanish, all nouns are either masculine or feminine. This has nothing to do with the

    words gender, but rather how the words are classified in the language.

    Most nouns end in either an o (for masculine items), or an a (for feminine items)

    In front of each noun, you know if it is feminine or masculine depending on what kind of

    definite article it has in front el, la, los, or las.

    If a noun is singular (meaning there is only one of the item) and it is masculine, use el such

    as el chico (the boy) or el libro (the book).

    To make these plural (more than one), change the el to los and add an s to the nouns

    such as los chicos (the boys) or los libros (the books).

    If a noun is singular and it is feminine, use la such as la chica (the girl) or la mesa (the

    table).

    To make these plural, change the la to las and add an s to the nouns such as las

    chicas (the girls) or las mesas (the tables).

    There are also such a thing as indefinite articles. Definite articles, as a review, meant the.

    Indefinite articles may translate to a, an, or some.

    If a noun is singular and it is masculine, use un such as un chico (a boy) or un libro (a

    book). To make these plural, change the un to unos and add an s to the nouns such as

    unos

    chicos (some boys) or unos libros (some books).

    If a noun is singular and it is feminine, use una such as una chica (a girl) or una mesa (a

    table).

  • To make these plural, change the una to unas and add an s to the nouns such as unas

    chicas (some girls) or

    unas mesas (some tables).

    There are exceptions to these rules, such as un da (one day) and la mano (the hand), but

    overall, looking at the end of the word will help you to determine which one to choose: el

    versus la , un versus una

  • Definite Articles

    In Spanish, all nouns are either masculine or feminine.

    Most nouns end in either an o (for masculine items), or an a (for feminine items)

    In front of each noun, you know if it is feminine or masculine depending on what kind of

    definite article it has in front el, la, los, or las.

    If a noun is singular (meaning there is only one of the item) and it is masculine, use el such

    as el chico (the boy) or el libro (the book).

    To make these plural (more than one), change the el to los and add an s to the nouns

    such as los chicos (the boys) or los libros (the books).

    If a noun is singular and it is feminine, use la such as la chica (the girl) or La Mesa (the

    table).

    To make these plural, change the la to las and add an s to the nouns such as las

    chicas (the girls) or las mesas (the tables).

    There are exceptions to these rules, such as el da (one day) and la mano (the hand), but

    overall, looking at the end of the word will help you to determine which one to choose: el

    versus la .

  • Demonstrative Adjectives

    Demonstrative Adjectives is a fancy way of saying this, these, that or those. We use them to

    indicate what we are talking about.

    There are two words in Spanish to say This, when referring to something close to you este

    and esta. It depends on the gender of the noun.

    Likewise, there are two words in Spanish to say That, when referring to something farther

    away ese and esa. It also depends on the gender of the noun.

    If your object is plural in English, this turns into these. It also changes in Spanish este

    becomes estos and esta becomes estas.

    The same happens to that word that it becomes those when the object is plural. Ese

    becomes esos and esa becomes esas.

  • Direct Object Pronouns

    A direct object is an object that receives the action of the verb.

    For example, I kick the ball the ball is the direct object as it receives the action of the verb.

    You can replace the word ball here by the word it. The it is the direct object pronoun.

    Notice that in English, the it is placed AFTER the verb kick.

    In Spanish, our direct object pronouns, me, te, lo, la, nos, los, and las. They are placed

    BEFORE the verb.

    For example: I eat the taco. The word el taco is masculine in Spanish, so you would choose

    the pronoun lo. And remember, it is placed BEFORE the verb.

    Now lets say the item is plural. Instead of lo, it becomes los. Yo los como. I eat them.

    Let's say you have a feminine object, such the key-la llave. In sentence form, you could say,

    Yo necesito la llave. Because "la llave" is feminine, the direct object pronoun of "it" becomes

    "la" therefore, yo la necesito.

    Now this object is plural. The direct object pronouns goes from la to las so the sentence

    is no Yo las necesito.

    Using our remaining three direct object pronouns, we can say, ella me ve, yo te veo, and ellos

    now ven. Keep in mind that the subject pronouns are always optional, so we could just say,

    me ve, te veo, and nos ven. It will get easier with time as you start to see the patterns.

    Just remember that the direct object pronouns is placed BEFORE the verb.

  • Doler

    The verb doler means to hurt and can be a very useful word in Spanish but it is a bit tricky

    until you get the pattern down.

    First of all, it is a stem-changing verb, where the o changes to a ue.

    To ask the question, where does it hurt?, you will say Donde le duele? The le in this case

    means you? You may also get the question Que le duele?

    To answer that question, say me duele ___ and then the body part. When you are saying the

    body part, dont forget the definite article or the el, la, los, or las.

    Lets say that your doctor asks Le duelen los odos? Notice now that a n was added to the

    end of the word. That is because he is asking about ears which are plural or more than

    one.

    To answer this, say, S, me duelen los odos keeping the n on the end. The verb dolor is not

    that difficult once you understand how it works. As with anything, it just takes practice!

  • Easy Future Tense Verbs

    Expressing the future tense is actually quite easy in Spanish. We are going to learn how to say

    going to in Spanish and then just add on whatever verb we need.

    Heres the basic construction. Ir + a + infinitive. The verb ir means to go which is

    different than verbs that end in ir. It conjugates as voy, vas, va, vamos, van.

    So how would you express the future and say, I am going to eat. Lets following the formula.

    First, choo