Additives and addictives substance

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Transcript of Additives and addictives substance

  • 1. By: Akmalia Rizke N F (03) Dhian Pratama(09) Dinda Sintia A N (10)

2. Additive Substance 3. 1. The Meaning of Additive Substance Additive food is a substances that are added to food in a little amount on purpose to improve shape, composition, or property of food. Meanwhile in Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia, additive is substance that is added to a product, for example colouring additive or seasoning, and as preservatives in food. Meanwhile in WIKIPEDIA, food additives are substances added to food to preserve flavor or enhance its taste and appearance. 4. 2. Kind of Additive Based on The Composition Natural additives Synthetic additives Synthetic additives have some advantages such as: The ability to be mass-produced Relatively more durable Easy to get and more cheaper 5. 3. Kind of Additive Stuff There are two kind of additive stuffs, those are reasonable additive and unreasonable additive. Reasonable Additive Reasonable additive is additive that is on purposely put into food so the food is interested and durable. Unreasonable Additive Unreasonable additive is additive found in foor naturally in limited amount or it can also appear because the presence of mistake during the process. For example, caffein, blue acid in potato, and so on. 6. 3A. Reasonable Additive Reasonable additive can be: Colourant matter Preservatives Flavoring Sweetener. 7. Colourant Matter Colourant matter is additive matter that can improve or give colour to food, so that food can be more attractive. There are two kind of colourant matter : natural colouring matter and synthetic colouring matter. 8. Natural Colouring Matter Name Colour Turmeric Yellow Anato Orange Caramel Black brown Carrot Orange Suji leaf Green Pandan leaf Green Cocoa Chocolate Red chili pepper Red Tea Brown Natural color are obtain from natural sources such as grasses, leafy vegetable, fruit skins, roots, and seed of plants. Table in the left show some example of natural colouring matter. 9. Synthetic Colouring Matter Name Colour Tartrazine Yellow Sunset yellow Yellow Yellow poncean 4R Yellow Patent blue V Blue Brilliant black BN Black Brilliant blue FCF Blue Green FCF Green Eritrosin Red Brown HT Brown These colors is made in a factory and do not obtain from nature. Some advantages of synthetic colouring matter : Much brighter than natural color Needed only in very low concentrations Much intense than natural color More stable than natural color 10. Pandan Leaf (Green) Tartrazine Turmeric (Yellow) Briliant Blue FCF 11. Sweetener Sweetener have purpose to make food or drink become sweet or become sweeter. There are two kind of sweetener: Natural sweetener and synthetic sweetener. 12. Natural Sweetener Natural sweetener is sugar. There are some kind of sugar, that is sugar from sugar cane, beet sugar, coconut sugar, sugar from sugar palm, date palm sugar, and sorghum sugar. 13. Sugar cane Date palm sugar 14. Synthetic Sweetener Economically, the synthetic sweeteners are cheaper than sugar and the synthetic sweeteners are sweeter than sugar. Synthetic sweetener are used to keep calories low. There are the relative sweetness degree of synthetic sweetener to sucrose. Sweetener The Relative Sweetness Degree to Sucrose Aspartame 16.000 X Saccharine 50.000 X Sucralose 60.000 X P-400 400.000 X Neotam 1.300.000 X 15. Flavoring Flavoring is a food additive that can give or sharpen taste and flavor. There are two kind of flavoring: Natural flavoring and Synthetic flavoring. 16. Natural Flavoring There are some example of natural flavor, such as table salt, turmeric, celedry, onions, pepers, chili, nutmegs, ginger, laurellike leaves, caraway, coriander, and pandanus leaves. The other example of natural flavoring: Natural citrate is extracted from lemon grass Natural benzaldehyde is extracted from bitter almonds Vanilin is obtained from vanila pods Except natural flavoring, there are some example of natural agent: Amyl acetate for banana flavor Benzaldehyde for cherry flavor Ethyl butyrate for pineapple flavor Methyl anthranilate for grape flavor 17. Onion Table salt 18. Synthetic Flavoring Synthetic flavoring which are most often used in everyday life is MSG (monosodium glutamat). Its more known as vetsin. MSG is made of syrup from sugar refining fermented using micrococcus glutamicus bacteria. Besides MSG, there are other synthetic chemicals which are usually used as flavoring for foods, among others are diacetyl, menthol, and eugenol compunds. 19. Preservatives Preservatives is additive matter to prevent or inhibit fermentation, decomposition, or acidification that is caused by micro-organism on purpose to preserve food or giving fresh taste in food. Preservatives are used to increase the shelf life of food by preventing the growth of microorganisms like yeast or bacteria in food. 20. Table of Preservation and Method of Preservation 1. Canning 2. Freezing / chilling 3. Drying 4. Pickling 5. Jam-making 6. Smoking 7. Preservatives 21. Canning Foods are sealed into cans and then heated to a high temperature (above 100oC). This kills any microbes in the food an the sealed can prevents fresh contamination. 22. Freezing / chilling Lowering the temperature slowed up enzyme activity in the spoiling microbes. This slows cellular respiration and its growth. 23. Drying Removes water from the food and dehydrates the microbes. This prevents their growth but does not remove any tocins that may already be present. 24. Pickling Vinegar is acidic and lowering the pH of the food can prevent the growth of microbes. The acidic environment reduces the enzyme- activity of the food-spoiling microbes. 25. Jam-making Jams contain high concentrations of sugar. This effectively draws water put of any microbes in the food and dehydrates them. 26. Smoking Foods are hung in wood smoke and chemicals in the smoke act to kill microbes in the food and also give it a distinctive flavor. 27. Preservatives The used of additives. These substances reduce the growth of microbes. There are two kind of preservatives, natural preservatives and synthetic preservatives. 28. Natural Preservatives Natural preservatives also can be antioxidant (prevent oxidation in fruit and vegetables). The example of natural preservatives are : sugar, salt, ice, and spices, such as tamarind, cinnamon, honey, and clove. Sugar can bond water efficiently, so adding sugar into foods will make the water that used for growth of decomposer organism is gone. Jam, candied fruits, the essence of fruits are examples of foods preserved using sugar. Salt used in preservering food such as fishes, meat, and vegetables. Food that preserved using salt are often called salty foods. Ice enables bacteria to be in non ideal temperature for doing activity. Meanwhile spices contain the benzoic acid compound inhibiting the process in food decomposition. 29. Synthetic Preservatives Because the quantity of natural preservative are limited in the nature, hence food producers make synthetic preservatives. Beside that, the quality of the natural preservatives is relatively not good compared with synthetic preservatives. There are some example of synthetic preservatives. 30. Addictives & Psychotropic 31. Definition Addictives are substances that can cause their user to become addicted. Addition is a physical and psychological condition of someone that doesnt function properly without the consumption of a particular substance. 32. Kind of AddictiveSubstancesAccordingto the Effectto User 1. Stimulant : Make a person fell more energic 2. Depressants : Bring a felling or relaxation 3. Hallucinogens : Change the way someone experiences reality. 33. The Effectsof Addictives Stimulation is a symptom that happens in the central nervous system to accelerate processes in the human body, such as hearth rate, blood pressure, and respiration. As a result of this acceleration process, someone who uses stimulants will seem healthy, alert, happy, fresh, and so on. Examples of stimulants are caffeine in coffee, nicotine in cigarettes, cocaine, and amphetamines. Depression is a symptom that happens in the central nervous system to slow down processes in the human body. Depression decreases someones awareness of the world around him/her. Substances that cause depression are called depressants. In the medical world, depressants are employed for people with insomnia. Examples of depressants are alcohol, sedatives, and so on. Hallucination is a symptom that happens to human nerves that leads to fantasy. Hallucination makes a person hear sounds, see things, and feel something which doesnt exist. Hallucination can make someone laugh by him/her self, talk and move with no purpose. Example of hallucinogen is LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide) 34. Legal Addictive Substances 35. 1. Caffeine Can be found in coffee. Moderate consumption is three cups or less of coffee per day. Ten cup is considered excessive and results in nervousness, sleeping difficulty, increased heartbeat, headaches, anxiety and nausea. According to the effect of caffein, this substance belongs to stimulants. 36. 2. Nicotine Can be found in the cigarette, this substance increases dopamine levels and boost adrenalin. Increased adrenaline raises the users hearth rate and blood pressure, and interferes with release of insulin by pancreas, leading to elevated blood sugar. 37. 3. Alcohol Such as beer, wine and liquor. Alcohol is an ancient drug. Alcohol is depressant that effect neuron in the central nervous system which lead relaxation, drowsiness, lack of inhibition sleep, coma and even death. Addiction to alcohol is called alcoholism. 38. 4. Inhalant Such as aerosols, solvents, gases and nitrates. Product range from paint thinners to hair spray to propane tanks, and inhalation result in a high similar to that of alcohol. Even one-time use of inhalants can kill or cause hearth failure. Three main characteristics o