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    SAP AG

    CSU

    Chico

    MINS298c

    ABAP/4 Programming

    Introduction to Data Types

    Chapter 4

    Fall 1998

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    Overview

    Introduction

    Declaration

    Data Types

    elementary

    complex

    Working with Data Types

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    Data Objects

    Data Object

    VariableFixed

    ? ?

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    Data Objects

    Data Object

    VariableFixed

    Literals Constants

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    Fixed Data Objects

    (Constants and Literals)

    CONSTANTS: company_name(3) type c value SAP.

    Literals are inside quotes

    WRITE: Happiness is SAP.

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    Hierarchy

    Variable Data Objects

    Table Record Field

    Table is made up ofRecords(s) is made up of

    have a structure

    Field(s) is made up of characters

    have a type

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    Fields are Variables

    may be declared at any point within the program

    may use up to 30 characters in name

    may use hyphen, but prefer dash for readability

    may not use an ABAP reserved word follow rules of scope definition

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    Normal Scope

    ProgramDATA A, B, C

    FormDATA X, Y, Z

    FormDATA D, E, F

    Write A

    Write F

    Write A

    Write F

    Write A

    Write F

    According to normal

    rules of scope, which

    Write statements arelegal and which are not?

    Line1

    2

    3

    4

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    Data Types

    User definedPre-defined

    (p,i,f,c,n,d,t,x)

    Elementary Structured

    Structured type Table type

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    Data Types

    User definedPre-defined

    (p,i,f,c,n,d,t,x)

    Elementary Structured

    Structured type Table type

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    Pre-defined Types(with default length and value)

    Character Default Justify

    c 1 space left n 1 0 left

    Numbers

    i 4 0 right

    p 8 0 right

    f 8 0.0 right

    Date (d) 8 00000000 left

    Time (t) 6 000000 left

    Hexadecimal (x) 1 00 left

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    Data Types

    User definedPre-defined

    (p,i,f,c,n,d,t,x)

    Elementary Structured

    Structured type Table type

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    Three Ways to Declare Types

    pre-defined elementary types

    non-elementary types

    existing fields

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    Types and Data Statement

    DATA var[(length)] [TYPE type] [DECIMALS num] [VALUE

    init]

    TYPES BEGIN OF rec-name

    [fieldname]END OF rec-name

    DATA var LIKE table-field [VALUE init]

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    Similar Declarations

    Data: customer_name(25) type c,

    vendor_name(25) type c.

    TYPES name(25) type c.

    DATA: customer_name type name,

    vendor_name type name.

    DATA: customer_name(25) type c,vendor_name LIKE customer_name.

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    What are the defaults here?

    What are the default type and length of flag and ofmy_number?

    DATA: flag, my_number.

    What is contained in c_alpha and n_alpha?

    DATA: c_alpha(3) type c value 5,

    n_alpha(3) type n value 5.

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    Character: C vs N

    C = justifies left and has trailing blanks

    N = justifies right and has leading zeroes

    What happens with:

    DATA: var-1(4) type c value 1234,var-2(4) type n value 1234.

    WRITE:/ var-1, var-2.

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    What are the defaults here?

    What is contained in c_alpha and n_alpha?

    DATA: c_alpha(3) type c value 5,

    n_alpha(3) type n value 5.

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    Dates and Times

    Date = d stored as YYYYMMDD with initial value of00000000

    Time = t stored as HHMMSS with 000000

    Why store in this format?

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    Which is easier to sort?

    01/01/58

    01/20/58

    01/01/60

    12/01/97

    01/20/00

    19580101

    19580120

    19600101

    19971201

    20000120

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    Computations on Dates

    DATA my_date LIKE sy-datum.

    MOVE 19580420 to my_date.

    my_date = my_date - 1.

    Write:\ my_date.

    Displays 19580419

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    Offset and Length Format

    One may address sub-parts of elementary data objectsby specifying the offset and length !!!

    MOVE sy-datum+6(2) to hold_day

    1 9 5 8 0 4 2 0

    sy-datum(0) sy-datum(6)

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    Parameter Statement

    Parameter statement creates a set of variable fieldswhich are presented to the user for input on theselection screen.

    PARAMETERS var TYPE type [DEFAULT value]

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    Data Types

    User definedPre-defined

    (p,i,f,c,n,d,t,x)

    Elementary Structured

    Structured type Table type

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    Records

    records or structures are called field strings in ABAP

    use BEGIN OF and END OF

    nesting is allowed

    use TYPES command

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    Field String Types

    TYPES : BEGIN OF ADDRESS,

    street(20) type c,

    city(20) type c,

    state(10) type c,

    zip type I,

    END OF ADDRESS.

    How large (in characters) is the record ADDRESS?

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    Using Field String Types

    TYPES : BEGIN OF ADDRESS,

    street(20) type c,city(20) type c,

    state(10) type c,

    zip type I,

    END OF ADDRESS.

    DATA: Old_Address TYPE Address,

    New_Address TYPE Address.

    Old_Address

    Street City State Zip

    Old_Address-Zip

    Old_Address-City

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    Data Types

    User definedPre-defined

    (p,i,f,c,n,d,t,x)

    Elementary Structured

    Structured type Table type

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    Creating Tables

    Use the occurs statement

    not necessary to identify the amount, may use zero (0).

    Format

    TYPES tablename TYPE type OCCURS 0. Example

    TYPES Address_Table TYPE ADDRESS OCCURS 0.

    Really creates the structurewhich will be allocated andmaintained dynamically.

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    Declarative Statements

    DATA

    TYPE

    CONSTANTS

    PARAMETERS

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    Assignments

    Create program(s) to

    demonstrate the justification difference between the nand c types

    determine whether or not our system has a roundingerror in the fixed point arithmetic

    find the difference between the current date and yourbirthday

    prove that one day before 01/01/98 is 12/31/97 using theABAP date types

    use the parameter statement to interactively ask for twodates and display the difference between them.