Research Part3

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Research Methodology

Step 4: Deciding on the Methodology d. Data collection:Guidelines to Construct a Research Tool:Research tool is instrument you use to collect data It contains your variables (questions)For oral and written questioning it is called questionnaireFor focus group discussion it called topic guideFor observation it is called check list

Step 4: Deciding on the Methodology The tool should be valid and reliable Valid means it should be able to measure what it is intended forA weighing scale is a valid instrument for measuring the weight of personsA weighing scale is not a valid instrument for measuring the height of personsThe question (what is your age ?) is valid for measuring the ageIt is not valid for measuring gender

Step 4: Deciding on the Methodology Reliable means the instrument gives the same measurement every time it is usedIf I use a weighing scale to measure your weight twice and the reading was 60 kgs in both instances the scale is reliableIf I use a weighing scale to measure your weight twice and the reading was 60 kgs in first time and 70 in the second time the scale is not reliable

Step 4: Deciding on the Methodology The Questionnaire: A questionnaire consists of a set of questions presented to a respondent for answers. There are two basic types of questions: Closed ended Open-ended

Step 4: Deciding on the Methodology 1.Closed ended Questions: Closed ended questions include all possible answers/prewritten response categories, and respondents choose among them. e.g. multiple choice questions, scale questions What is your marital status?MarriedNever marriedWidowDivorced

Step 4: Deciding on the Methodology 2. Open-ended Questions: Open-ended questions allow respondents to answer in their own words. Questionnaire leaves a blank section for the response to write in an answer. As there are no standard answers to these questions, data analysis is more complex. What is your age?.years

Step 4: Deciding on the Methodology How to construct questionnaires: Deciding which questionnaire to use- - closed or open ended, or combination - self or interviewer administered

Step 4: Deciding on the Methodology Wording and structure of questions Questions should be kept short and simpleAvoid double barreled i.e. two questions in one ask two Qs rather than one. (do you eat meat and vegetables? 1. yes 2. no) Avoid double-negative questions- as it is confusing for respondent to agree or disagree. ( it is not good not to breast feed children: 1. yes 2. no)

Step 4: Deciding on the Methodology Avoiding Leading Question: Dont lead the respondent to answer in a certain way ( it is good to wash hands before eating? 1. agree 2. do not agree).

Step 4: Deciding on the Methodology Using closed- ended questions- try to make sure that all possible answers are covered(What is your educational level? illiterate primary school)

Step 4: Deciding on the Methodology Length and ordering of the Questions: Avoid unnecessary questions these waste time for interviewees, interviewers, data entry clerks, etc.If combined questionnaire, keep open ended Qs for the end. Group the Qs. Into specific topic as this it makes it easier to understand and follow. Layout and spacing is important as cluttered Questionnaire is less likely to be answered. Put more straightforward questions first: leave more sensitive questions till later

Step 4: Deciding on the Methodology Piloting the Questionnaire Once you have constructed your questionnaire, you must pilot it. This means that you must test it out to see if it is obtaining the result you require (valid). This is done by asking people to read it through and see if there are any ambiguities which you have not noticed. They should also be asked to comment about the length, structure and wording of the questionnaire Alter the questions accordingly

Step 4: Deciding on the Methodology Ethical issues in research:i)Seeking consent: it is unethical to collect information without the knowledge of the participant, and their expressed willingness and informed consent. Informed consent means that you tell subjects about the type of information you want from themThe consent should be voluntary and without pressure of any kind.

Step 4: Deciding on the Methodology Ethical issues in research:ii) Providing incentives: Is it ethical to provide incentives to respondents to share information with you because they are giving their time? Giving a present before data collection is unethical.

Step 4: Deciding on the Methodology Ethical issues in research:iii) The possibility of causing harm to participant: When you collect data from respondents or involve subjects in an experiment, you need to examine carefully whether their involvement is likely to harm them in any way. Harm includes hazardous experiments, discomfort, anxiety, harassment, invasion of privacy

Step 4: Deciding on the Methodology Ethical issues in research:iv) Maintaining confidentiality: Sharing information about a respondent with others for purposes other than research is unethical.

Step 4: Deciding on the Methodology Analysis of data:Data can be analysed either manually or with the help of a computerManual Data Analysis: This can be done if the number of respondents is reasonably small, and there are not many variables to analyse.If you want to carry out statistical tests, they have to be calculated manually.

Step 4: Deciding on the Methodology Data Analysis Using a Computer: If you want to analyse data using computer, you should be familiar with the appropriate program. In this area, knowledge of computer and statistics plays an important role. The most common software is SPSS for windows.

Table 1: distribution of first year students at college of medicine- 2014Gender Frequency Percent Male 54 45.0female6655.0Total 120100

Table 2: distribution of first year students at college of medicine- 2014Age < 16 years 2016.716 18 years8066.7> 18 years 2016.7Total 120100

Table 3: relationship between smoking and lung cancer

Here you have to use the chi square test to see if a relationship really exists or it is due to chance Age Ca lung No ca lung Total Smokers 251540Non smokers 103040Total 354580

5. Interpretation of resultsYou interpret results by comparing it with results of other similar studies55% of the students are females- what does this imply?Compare with the % of females in other colleges in IUAIf females are more in all colleges this may mean that females are more than males in general population that is why they are more in collegeIf no, compare with % of females in other colleges in medicine locally and internationallyIf females are more this may mean females work harder and get better marks or males prefer other studies ( engineering)

Step6: REPORTING THE FINDINGS: Writing the report is the last, and for many, the most difficult step of the research process. The report informs the world what you have done, what you have discovered and what conclusions you have drawn from your findings. The report should be written in an academic style. Language should be formal and not journalistic.

Step6: REPORTING THE FINDINGSWritten Research Project Report FormatTraditional written reports tend to be produced in the following format. Title Page -Title of the Research Project, -Name of the researcher, -Purpose of the research project, e.g. A research project submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements of MBBS -Date of Publication

Step6: REPORTING THE FINDINGSAcknowledgements Here the researcher may acknowledge Institute Principal, Faculty Guide-both research guide and technical guide, research participants, friends etc.

Step6: REPORTING THE FINDINGSIntroduction This section introduces the research subject, and description of the problemIt includes a rationale for the research. Research objectives:General and specific

Step6: REPORTING THE FINDINGSReview of Literature In this section is included all your background research which may be obtained from the literature review.

Step6: REPORTING THE FINDINGSMaterials and Methods:Research design: Study areaStudy populationSamplingData collection techniques and toolsData analysisEthical issues

Step6: REPORTING THE FINDINGSResults: this section may contain tables, graphs, pie charts and associated statistics. Discussion:Interpretation of results using literature

Step6: REPORTING THE FINDINGSConclusion: In this section you sum up your findings and draw conclusions from them, perhaps in relation to your objectives Recommendations A list of clear recommendations which have been developed from the research is included-

Step6: REPORTING THE FINDINGSList of references contains details only of those works cited in the text. The popular referencing system Harvard System lists books and periodicals in the following manner:

Step6: REPORTING THE FINDINGSFor Books1.Authors surname ( alphabetically), followed by their initials, 2.Date of publication 3.Title of book in italics 4.Place of publication, Publisher. e.g. Philip, T.E.; 1986 , Modern Cookery for Teaching and Trade, Mumbai, Orient Longman.

Step6: REPORTING THE FINDINGSFor Journal Article: The title of the article appears in inverted commas and name of the journal comes in italics, followed by volume number and pages of the article. e.g. Philip, T.E.; Factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding practices among mothers in Goba district, south east Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study; International Breastfeeding Journal; 5:5-11

Step6: REPORTING THE FINDINGSAppendices: If you have constructed a questionnaire or Interview schedule for your research, it may be useful to include them in your report as an appendix. Appendices