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  • Sustainable Development Policies and Measures 61

    3. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTPOLICIES AND MEASURES:Starting From Development to TackleClimate Change

    Harald Winkler, Randall Spalding-Fecher,Stanford Mwakasonda, and Ogunlade Davidson

    Introduction

    Climate change is a global problem requiring the cooperation of all coun-tries to be addressed effectively. Emissions from the industrialized Northhave thus far been greater than from the developing South, but they aregrowing rapidly in the latter.1 The principle of common, but differenti-ated responsibilities between industrialized and developing countries iswell established in the negotiations. However, cooperation between Northand South has been limited in the negotiations under the United NationsFramework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Climate changeis not seen as a priority by developing countries, which are preoccupied bythe challenges of meeting basic development needs. As the commitmentperiod beyond the Kyoto targets (200812) draws closer, the question ofhow developing countries might participate in the effort against globalwarming becomes more urgent.

    Participation could take different forms. Participation might range frommandatory requirements, such as quantified emission limitation targets,to pledges to make their development path more sustainable. Dividing aglobal reduction target among all countries (in a top-down manner) isonly one possible approach (see Chapter 1).2 The alternative approach ispledge-based (in a bottom-up matter). The pledge could be to quanti-fied emission targets, as in the Kyoto process,3 or more qualitative in na-ture. In such an approach, it is clear that countries negotiate in their self-interest, so each tends to propose indicators most beneficial to itself (Grubb

  • 62 Building on the Kyoto Protocol: Options for Protecting the Climate

    et al. 1999). Extending the Kyoto regime globally would involve pledgesby developing countries (see Chapter 2).

    This chapter outlines and proposes a pledge by developing countries toimplement sustainable development policies and measures (SD-PAMs).Development is a key priority for decision-makers in developing coun-tries, and therefore building climate change policy on development pri-orities would make it attractive to these stakeholders. Starting from de-velopment objectives and then describing paths of more sustainable de-velopment that also address climate change may be the easiest way formany developing countries to take the first steps in longer-term action onclimate change. The approach has a basis in the Climate Convention,which, together with a proposed reporting structure, would provide suffi-cient stringency for a first step.

    We begin by outlining the SD-PAMs approach, including its main fea-tures and assumptions. In Section II, we apply this approach to SouthAfrica to illustrate the steps taken in practice. Section III considers howthis approach might be extended to other countries and which kinds ofcountries might find it attractive, particularly compared to other ap-proaches. We then consider the relationship of this approach to the ulti-mate objective of the UNFCCC in Section IV. The conclusion summa-rizes the major strengths and weaknesses of the SD-PAMs approach.

    I. What Is the SD-PAMs Approach?

    SD-PAMs is a pledge-based approach to developing-country participationin mitigating climate change. The approach focuses on implementing poli-cies for sustainable development, rather than setting emission targets. TheSD-PAMs approach recognizes as a political reality that concerns withclimate change (and, in some cases, even environmental policy morebroadly) are marginal for many developing countries, and lower in na-tional priority than economic and development policies.4 It builds on ex-isting commitments and the right to sustainable development enshrinedin the Convention.

    SD-PAMs differs from the existing policies and measures requirementsfor industrialized countries, which clearly prioritize measures with im-pacts in affecting GHG [greenhouse gas] emissions and removals(UNFCCC 1999). Instead, SD-PAMs starts with the development objec-tives and needs of developing countries. Countries begin by examiningtheir development priorities and identifying how these could be achievedmore sustainably, either by tightening existing policy or implementing

  • Sustainable Development Policies and Measures 63

    new measures. The next step is to identify synergies between sustainabledevelopment and climate change, that is, those SD-PAMs that also resultin reductions of GHG emissions. To obtain a realistic picture of the im-pact of a set of SD-PAMs, those policies and measures that increase GHGemissions also need to be identified.

    Starting from Development, Shifting to SustainabilityThe SD-PAMs approach suggests that we work backwards from a desiredfuture state of development. Key development objectives typically includepoverty eradication, job creation, food security, access to modern energyservices, transport, drinking water, education, health services, and land.Development is needed because the number of houses to be built, mouthsto be fed, and dwellings to be lit and heated is growing.

    Sustainability, for the purposes of this chapter, is taken to mean provid-ing for these basic human needs in a way that can continue over time,result in less damage to the environment, and provide more social benefitsand long-term economic development. Sustainable development must bedriven by local and national priorities. Although documents such as theUnited Nations Millennium Declaration (UN 2000) and the New Part-nership for Africas Development (NEPAD 2001) articulate goals at theinternational and regional levels, each country will have its own set ofdevelopment priorities. The meaning of sustainable development is shapedby the values of each society, and no single approach is appropriate for alleconomies (Munasinghe 2001, Sachs 1999, Zhou 2001). One of thestrengths of the SD-PAMs approach is that it acknowledges and startsfrom the premise that development and sustainability are country-spe-cific.

    In meeting these basic development needs, different paths are possible,and the aim of SD-PAMs is to shift toward a more sustainable path ofdevelopment. In describing sustainable paths for meeting developmentobjectives, the hypothesis is that, on balance, GHG emissions will also bereduced relative to a conventional development path (Figure 3.1). Manydeveloping countries are already avoiding emissions through current policy.If countries act early to move to even greater sustainability in their devel-opment path, they will start bending the curve (see Raskin et al. 1998)of their emission trajectory.

    This hypothesis is supported by the latest findings of the InternationalPanel on Climate Change (IPCC 2001c). According to the IPCC, a low-carbon future is associated with a whole set of policies and actions that go

  • 64 Building on the Kyoto Protocol: Options for Protecting the Climate

    Figure 3.1.Theoretical Impact ofSustainable DevelopmentPolicies and Measures onTrajectory of GreenhouseGas Emissions

    beyond the development of climate policy itself (Morita and Robinson2001). Moving toward a sustainable development path could avoid bur-densome future mitigation efforts and even have a greater long-term im-pact on emissions than climate change policies. Thus, the major contribu-tion of SD-PAMs lies not in promoting mitigation effort per se, but inchanging the reference scenario of emissions from conventional to sus-tainable.5 Likewise, the IPCC also finds that the choice of developmentpath will have a greater impact than climate policy on equity in energyuse, suggesting an additional benefit of SD-PAMs (Morita and Robinson2001, Figure 2.19).

    The importance of sustainable development, and its relationship to cli-mate change, has long been recognized in the UNFCCC process. Article3.4 of the Convention states as a principle that:

    Parties have a right to, and should promote, sustainable development. Poli-cies and measures to protect the climate system against human-inducedchange should be appropriate to the specific condition of each Partyand should be integrated with national development programmes, tak-ing into account that economic development is essential for adoptingmeasures to address climate change. (UNFCCC 1992, Article 3.4.,emphasis added)

    The negotiations, however, have tended to focus more on emission targetsthan sustainable development, due in part to the predominance of theinterests of Northern countries. The links between sustainable develop-ment and climate change have received increasing attention in the recent

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    literature.6 The IPCCs Working Group III has broadened the analysis ofclimate change mitigation to the context of development, equity andsustainability in its contribution to the Third Assessment report (Banuriand Weyant 2001). The challenge considered in this chapter is to turn theconceptual link between sustainable development and climate change intoa workable approach.

    Global Frameworks and National CircumstancesClimate change policy can be designed to achieve a certain desirable levelof atmospheric concentration of GHGs in order to meet the UNFCCCobjective of the stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmo-sphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interfer-ence with the climate system (UNFCCC 1992, Article 2). Given thisobjective of the Convention, many top-down global schemes backcastfrom an assumed GHG concentration target,7 and then allocate the nec-essary re