1 Buyers and Sellers Determine Prices. 2 Goals of Buyers and Sellers BUYERS Make a transaction Zero...

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Transcript of 1 Buyers and Sellers Determine Prices. 2 Goals of Buyers and Sellers BUYERS Make a transaction Zero...

  • Slide 1
  • 1 Buyers and Sellers Determine Prices
  • Slide 2
  • 2 Goals of Buyers and Sellers BUYERS Make a transaction Zero price SELLERS Infinite Price Make a transaction
  • Slide 3
  • 3 The Process of Price Determination
  • Slide 4
  • 4 COMPETITION IS THE REGULATOR It constrains buyers and sellers.
  • Slide 5
  • 5 Competition is the Regulator If he charges too much for his wares, or if he refuses to pay as much as everybody else for his workers, he will find himself without buyers in the one case, and without workers in the other.
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  • 6 Buyers want the lowest possible price, but.... For Sale DEMAND Price Quantity
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  • 7 they have to compete against all other buyers. For Sale Price Quantity
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  • 8 Sellers want to charge the highest price possible, but...... For Sale Price Quantity Supply
  • Slide 9
  • 9 they have to compete against all other sellers. For Sale Price Quantity Supply
  • Slide 10
  • 10 Competition determines the Equilibrium Price For Sale SUPPLY Demand Price Quantity
  • Slide 11
  • 11 How are prices determined? Buyers competing against each other drive the price up Sellers competing against each other drive the price down Equilibrium Price is determined by the impersonal forces of supply and demand
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  • 12 About the buyers
  • Slide 13
  • 13 Influences on the sellers
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  • 14 Reservation Prices Sellers Supply price The lowest price that a seller is willing and able to accept for a particular quantity of a particular product Buyers Demand price The highest price that a buyer is willing and able to pay for a particular quantity of a particular product
  • Slide 15
  • 15 At the equilibrium price Buyers who are able and willing to pay the price get the goods and services they desire Sellers who are able to produce at that price sell all that they wish There are neither surpluses nor shortages Not all prospective buyers or sellers are satisfied
  • Slide 16
  • 16 Relative Prices $20 $10 $40 Income = $30,000
  • Slide 17
  • 17 Relative Prices Have Not Changed $20 $10 $40 Income = $30,000 Income = $60,000 $20 $40 $80
  • Slide 18
  • 18 Supply a relationship PriceQuantity Supplied $105 $94 $83 $72 $61 $50 $40 $30 $20 $10
  • Slide 19
  • 19 The Law of Supply Once all other factors have been considered, the quantity supplied of a product varies directly with the price of the product. If the price rises, the quantity supplied will rise; if the price falls, the quantity supplied will fall.
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  • 20 Demand a relationship PriceQuantity Demanded $100 $90 $81 $72 $63 $54 $45 $36 $27 $18
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  • 21 The Law of Demand Once all other factors have been considered, the quantity demanded of a product varies inversely with the price of the product. If the price rises, the quantity demanded will fall; if the price falls, the quantity demanded will rise.
  • Slide 22
  • 22 Price Elasticity of Demand Measure of the strength of buyers reactions to price changes If buyers dont react very strongly, inelastic If buyers react strongly, elastic
  • Slide 23
  • 23 Determinants of Price Elasticity of Demand availability of substitutes percentage of income time
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  • 24 Price Elasticity of Supply Strength of sellers response to price change Determinants time use of easily transferable resources divisibility of inputs.
  • Slide 25
  • 25 Equilibrium Price and Quantity Exchanged PriceQuantity Supplied Quantity Demanded $1050 $940 $831 $722 $613 $504 $405 $306 $207 $108
  • Slide 26
  • 26 The Equilibrium Price Quantity supplied equals quantity demanded No shortages or surpluses The market clears Scarcity is not eliminated The measure of relative scarcity
  • Slide 27
  • 27 Relative Price: unit by which we measure relative scarcity scarcity (Units on the Scarcometer)
  • Slide 28
  • 28 Order these products in terms of relative scarcity yacht candy bar dinner for one at MacDonalds a nice dinner for two in LA laptop computer Toyota mini truck ticket to a professional baseball game
  • Slide 29
  • 29 Main Points The Law of Demand states that a higher price will cause a decrease in the quantity demanded and a lower price will cause an increase in the quantity demanded. A demand schedule is a relationship between prices and quantities demanded.
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  • 30 Main Points The Law of Supply states that a higher price will cause an increase in the quantity supplied and a lower price will cause a decrease in the quantity supplied. A supply schedule is a relationship between prices and quantities supplied.
  • Slide 31
  • 31 Main Points Price elasticity of demand is the strength of the buyers response to price changes. The determinants of price elasticity of demand are availability of substitutes, percentage of income, and time.
  • Slide 32
  • 32 Main Points Price elasticity of supply is the measure of the strength of sellers response to a price change The determinants of price elasticity of supply are time, use of easily transferable resources, and divisibility of inputs.
  • Slide 33
  • 33 Main Points Buyers and sellers (demand and supply) determine equilibrium price and quantity exchanged. At the equilibrium price, the number of items that sellers are willing and able to offer for sale equals the number of items that buyers are willing and able to purchase. Relative scarcity is the relationship of supply and demand. Price is the measure of relative scarcity