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Transcript of 03 Blending Powerpoint

  • PETROLEUM PRODUCT

    BLENDING

  • About Instructor

    Current job position:

    Working experiences:

  • EMERGENCY EVACUATION INSTRUCTION

    Whenever you hear the building alarm or are informed of a

    general building emergency:

    Leave the building immediately, in an orderly fashion;

    Do not use elevators;

    Follow quickest evacuation route from where you are;

    If the designated assembly point/area is unsafe or blocked due to

    the emergency, proceed to the alternate assembly point;

    Report to your Work Area Rep at the assembly point to be checked

    off as having evacuated safely;

    Specific safety requirements for TODAY.

    Today: NO testing of fire alarm systems

  • COURSE OUTLINE

    Total duration: 2 days;

    Lecture: 2 days;

    Lecture content:

    Introduction;

    Petroleum products specs;

    Products blending system;

    Fuels additives;

    Blending calculations;

  • INTRODUCTION

    Crude oil resources?

    Petroleum products consumption?

    Refinery products? Bio-fuels?

    Fuel specifications ?

  • INTRODUCTION

  • INTRODUCTION

    Environmental issues?

    The combustion of fossil fuels leads to the formation of CO2, CO,

    unburned hydrocarbons, NOx, SOx, soot, and particulate matter.

  • INTRODUCTION

    The mechanism of the development of vehicles and fuels

  • INTRODUCTION

    Classification of fuels ?

    Unleaded gasoline;

    E5;

    Racing gasoline;

    Aviation gasoline;

    Jet-fuel;

    LPG CNG;

    Diesel;

    Bio-diesel.

  • INTRODUCTION

    Emission standards

  • PRODUCT SPECIFICATIONS

    Product ASTM

    Specs Description

    Gasoline D4814 Standard Specification for Automotive Spark Ignition Engine

    Fuel

    Jet D1655 Standard Specification for Aviation Turbine Fuels

    Kerosene D3699 Standard Specification for Kerosene

    Diesel D975 Standard Specification for Diesel Fuel Oils

    Fuel Oil D396 Standard Specification for Fuel Oils

  • PRODUCT SPECIFICATIONS

    TCVN system?

  • Blending purposes?

    PRODUCTS BLENDING

    Blending methods normally employed include:

    batch blending,

    partial in-line blending,

    and continuous in-line blending

  • PRODUCTS BLENDING

  • BATCH BLENDING

  • BATCH BLENDING

    System requirement?

    Blend equipment?

    Storage?

    System control?

    QA & QC?

  • JET MIXER

  • PARTIAL IN-LINE BLENDING

  • PARTIAL IN-LINE BLENDING

    System requirement?

    Blend equipment?

    Storage?

    System control?

    QA & QC?

  • CONTINUOUS IN-LINE BLENDING

  • CONTINUOUS IN-LINE BLENDING

    System requirement?

    Blend equipment?

    Storage?

    System control?

    QA & QC?

  • FUEL ADDITIVES

    These chemical additives in small dosages combine to add or improve

    properties of virgin fuels that cannot be obtained through the refining

    processes !

    There are six reasons for using additives in fuels:

    To improve handling properties and stability of the fuel

    To improve combustion properties of the fuel

    To reduce emissions from fuel combustion

    To provide engine protection and cleanliness

    To increase in the economic use of the fuel

    To establish or enhance the brand image of the fuel

  • FUEL ADDITIVES

    Motor engine gasoline additives and their functions

    Additives for Gasoline Distribution Systems

    Antioxidants

    Metal deactivators

    Antistatic agents

    Corrosion inhibitors

    Sediment reduction agents

    Dyes

    Dehazers

  • FUEL ADDITIVES

    Motor engine gasoline additives and their functions

    Additives for gasoline vehicle system

    Antiknock additive (was tetra ethyl lead, which is now phased out)

    Anti-valve seat recession additive (also phased out due to

    metallurgy change in the engines)

    Carburetor detergents (gradually being phased out due to the

    introduction of injectors)

    Deposit control additives

    Deposit modifiers

    Friction modifiers

    Lubricity improvers

  • FUEL ADDITIVES

    Motor engine gasoline additives and their functions

  • FUEL ADDITIVES

    Additives of diesel fuels and their functions

    Additives for Diesel Distribution System

    Antifoam agents

    Antistatic agents

    Biocides

    Corrosion inhibitors

    Sediment reduction agents

    Dyes

    Demulsifiers

    Flow improvers/wax crystal modifiers/wax dispersants Metal

    deactivators

    Markers to check origin

    Stabilizers

  • FUEL ADDITIVES

    Additives of diesel fuels and their functions

    Additives for Diesel Vehicle System

    Cetane improvers

    Combustion improvers

    Deposit control additives

    Injector detergents

    Lubricity improvers

    Friction modifiers

  • FUEL ADDITIVES

    Additives of diesel fuels and their functions

  • FUEL ADDITIVES

    Additives of diesel fuels and their functions

  • FUEL ADDITIVES

    Additives for gasoline and diesel distribution systems are used in

    refineries to meet minimum fuel specifications at the optimum cost

    without compromising on the yield of the products

  • GASOLINE BLENDING

    During the blending of gasolines not only the physical and chemical

    properties of each blending component has to be considered but

    those contributions that may be harmful material emissions;

    The main sources of the volatile organic compounds ?

    The formation of toxic materials and their emission quantities?

  • GASOLINE BLENDING

    Volatility of engine gasolines

  • GASOLINE BLENDING TCVN

    Tn ch tiu Xng khng ch

    Phng php th RON 90

    RON

    92

    RON

    95

    1. Tr s c tan, min.

    - theo phng php nghin cu (RON).

    - theo phng php mt (MON).

    90

    79

    92

    81

    95

    84

    TCVN 2703:2002

    (ASTM D2699)

    ASTM D2700

    2. Hm lng ch, g/l, max. 0,013 TCVN 7143:2002

    (ASTM D3237)

    3. Thnh phn ct phn on:

    - im si u, 0C.

    - 10% th tch, 0C, max.

    - 50% th tch, 0C, max.

    - 90% th tch, 0C, max.

    - im si cui, 0C, max.

    - cn cui, % th tch, max.

    Bo co

    70

    120

    190

    215

    2,0

    TCVN 2698:2002

    (ASTM D86)

  • GASOLINE BLENDING TCVN

    Tn ch tiu Xng khng ch

    Phng php th RON 90

    RON

    92

    RON

    95

    4. n mn mnh ng 50 0C/3gi, max.

    Loi 1 TCVN 2694:2000 (ASTM

    D130)

    5. Hm lng nha thc t ( ra dung mi), mg/100 ml, max.

    5 TCVN 6593:2000 (ASTM

    D381)

    6. n nh xy ha, pht, min. 480 TCVN 6778:2000 (ASTM

    D525)

    7. Hm lng lu hunh, mg/kg, max.

    500 TCVN 6701:2000 (ASTM

    D2622) / ATSM D 5453

    8. p sut hi (Reid) 37,80C, kPa. 43 - 75 TCVN 7023:2002 (ASTM

    D4953) / ASTM D5191

    9. Hm lng benzen, % th tch, max.

    2,5 TCVN 6703:2000 (ASTM

    D3606) / ASTM D4420

    10.Hydrocacbon thm, % th tch, max.

    40 TCVN 7330:2003 (ASTM

    D1319)

  • GASOLINE BLENDING TCVN

    Tn ch tiu Xng khng ch

    Phng php th RON 90

    RON

    92

    RON

    95

    11.Olefin, % th tch, max. 38 TCVN 7330:2003 (ASTM

    D1319)

    12.Hm lng oxy, % khi lng, max.

    2,7 TCVN 7332:2003 (ASTM

    D4815)

    13.Khi lng ring ( 150C), kg/m3. Bo co TCVN 6594:2000 (ASTM

    D1298) / ASTM D 4052

    14.Hm lng kim loi (Fe,Mn),mg/l, max

    5 TCVN 7331:2003 (ASTM

    D3831)

    15.Ngoi quan Trong, khng c

    tp cht l lng ASTM D 4176

  • GASOLINE BLENDING

    Octane Numbers for Hydrocarbons ?

  • GASOLINE BLENDING

    Gasoline Blend Stock Properties

    Density RVP Boiling Range

    Component (kg/m3) (bar) C RON MON

    Butanes 0.575 3.6 -12 to -0.5 97 95

    Straight-run Gasoline 0.64 1.5 27 80 80.2 76.6

    Reformate 0.815 0.08 78 197 100.5 89.5

    Raffinate 0.685 0.3 65 112 60.3 54.5

    Hvy FCC Gasoline 0.76 0.2 43 185 90.5 79.5

    Light FCC Gasoline 0.66 1.3 25 89 94.5 81.5

    Pyrolysis Gasoline 0.845 0.3 47 180 101.5 810.

    Alkylate 0.705 0.3 39 195 98 93.5

    MTBE 0.746 0.5 48 62 115 97

  • GASOLINE BLENDING

    Blending octane and RVP of ethers and alcohols

    Blending Blending Blending

    Octane (RON) RVP (psi) RVP (kPa)

    Methanol 133 58-62 400-427

    Ethanol 130 18-22 124-152

    Methyl-t-butyl ether (MTBE) 118 8-10 55-69

    Ethyl-t-butyl ether (ETBE) 118 3-5 21-34

    t-Amyl methyl ether (TAME) 111 1-2 7-14

  • GASOLINE BLENDING

    Scheme of closed distribution system of hydrocarbons

  • DIESEL BLENDING TCVN

    STT Tn ch tiu Mc Phng php th

    0,05S 0,25S

    1 Hm lng lu hunh, mg/kg, max 500 2500

    TCVN 6701: 2007

    (ASTM D 2622 - 05)

    TCVN 7760 : 2008

    (ASTM D 5453 - 06)

    2 Xtan, min TCVN 7630 : 2007

    (ASTM D 613 - 05)

    - Tr s xtan hoc 46 TCVN 3180 : 2007

    - Ch s xtan (1) 46 (ASTM D 4737 - 04)

    3 Nhit ct ti 90% th tch, 0C, max 360