01 Owj100001 Wcdma Rnp Fundamental

Click here to load reader

  • date post

    19-Jul-2016
  • Category

    Documents

  • view

    12
  • download

    3

Embed Size (px)

description

WCDMA RAN FUNDAMENTALS

Transcript of 01 Owj100001 Wcdma Rnp Fundamental

  • www.huawei.com

    Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

    WCDMA RNP Fundamental

  • Page2Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

    Objectives

    z Upon completion of this course, you will be able to:

    Get familiar with principles of radio wave propagation, and

    theoretically prepare for the subsequent link budget.

    Introduce the knowledge about antennas and the meanings of

    typical indices.

  • Page3Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

    Contents

    1. Radio Wave Introduction

    2. Antenna

    3. RF Basics

    4. Symbol Explanation

  • Page4Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

    Contents

    1. Radio Wave Introduction

    1.1 Basic Principles of Radio Wave

    1.2 Propagation Features of Radio Wave

    1.3 Propagation Model of Radio Wave

    1.4 Correction of Propagation Model

  • Page5Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

    Radio Wave SpectrumRadio Wave Spectrum

    300-3000GHThe frequencies in each specific band present unique propagation features.

    z

    EHFExtremely HighFrequency

    30-300GHzSHFSuper High Frequency3-30GHzUHFUltra High Frequency300-3000MHzVHFVery High Frequency30-300MHzHFHigh Frequency3-30MHzMFMedium Frequency300-3000KHzLFLow Frequency30-300KHzVLFVery-low Frequency3-30KHzVFVoice Frequency300-3000Hz

    ELFExtremely LowFrequency

    30-300Hz3-30Hz

    DesignationClassificationFrequency

  • Page6Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

    Propagation of Electromagnetic Wave

    electric wave transmission directionElectric FieldElectric Field

    Magnetic FieldMagnetic Field

    Electric Field

    Dipole

    z When the radio wave propagates in the air, the electric field direction

    changes regularly. If the electric field direction of radio wave is vertical to the

    ground, the radio wave is vertical polarization wave

    If the electric field direction of radio wave is parallel with the ground, the radio

    wave is horizontal polarization wave

  • Page7Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

    Perpendicular incidence wave and ground refraction wave

    (most common propagation modes)

    Troposphere reflection wave(the propagation is very random)

    Mountain diffraction wave (shadow area signal source)

    Ionosphere refraction wave(beyond-the-horizon communication path)

    Propagation Path

  • Page8Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

    Building reflection waveBuilding reflection wave Diffraction waveDiffraction wave

    Direct waveDirect wave Ground reflection waveGround reflection wave

    Propagation Path

  • Page9Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

    Contents

    1. Radio Wave Introduction

    1.1 Basic Principles of Radio Wave

    1.2 Propagation Features of Radio Wave

    1.3 Propagation Model of Radio Wave

    1.4 Correction of Propagation Model

  • Page10Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

    Radio Propagation Environment

    z Radio wave propagation is affected by topographic structure

    and man-made environment. The radio propagation

    environment directly decides the selection of propagation

    models. Main factors that affect environment are:

    Natural landform (mountain, hill, plains, water area)

    Quantity, layout and material features of man-made buildings

    Natural and man-made electromagnetic noise conditions

    Weather conditions

    Vegetation features of the region

  • Page11Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

    Quasi-smooth landform

    The landform with a slightly rugged surface and

    the surface height difference is less than 20m

    Irregular landform

    The landforms apart from quasi-smooth landform

    are divided to: hill landform, isolated hills, slant

    landform, and land & water combined landform

    R

    T

    T

    R

    Landform Categories

  • Page12Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

    distance (m)

    Receiving power (dBm)

    10 20 30

    -20

    -40

    -60

    slow fading

    fast fading

    Signal Fading

  • Page13Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

    Signal Diversity

    Measures against fast fading --- Diversity

    z Time diversity

    z Space diversity

    z Frequency diversity

  • Page14Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

    Signal Diversity

    Measures against fast fading --- Diversity

    z Time diversity

    z Space diversity

    z Frequency diversity

  • Page15Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

    Solution RAKE technologyRAKE technology

    Radio Wave Delay Extension

    z Deriving from reflection, it refers to the co-frequency interference caused by the time difference in the space transmission of main signals and other multi-path signals received by the receiver

    z The transmitting signals come from the objects far away from thereceiving antenna

  • Page16Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

    T

    R

    Diffraction Loss

    z The electromagnetic wave diffuses around at the diffraction point

    z The diffraction wave covers all directions except the obstacle

    z The diffusion loss is most severe

  • Page17Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

    Penetration Loss

    XdBmWdBm

    Penetration loss =X-W=B dBPenetration loss =X-W=B dB

    z Penetration loss caused by obstructions:

  • Page18Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

    Contents

    1. Radio Wave Introduction

    1.1 Basic Principles of Radio Wave

    1.2 Propagation Features of Radio Wave

    1.3 Propagation Model of Radio Wave

    1.4 Correction of Propagation Model

  • Page19Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

    ),( fdfPathLoss =d f

    z Propagation model is used for predicting the medium value of path loss. The

    formula can be simplified under if the heights of UE and base station are

    given

    where: is the distance between UE and base station, and is the

    frequency

    z Propagation environment affect the model, and the main factors are :

    Natural terrain, such as mountain, hill, plain, water land, etc;

    Man-made building (height, distribution and material);

    Vegetation;

    Weather;

    External noise

    Propagation model

  • Page20Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

    Lo=91.48+20lgd, for f=900MHzLo=97.98+20lgd, for f=1900MHz

    Free Air Space Model

    z Free space propagation model is applicable to the wireless

    environment with isotropic propagation media (e.g., vacuum),

    and is a theoretic model

    z This environment does not exist in real life

  • Page21Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

    Ploss = L0+10lgd -20lghb - 20lghm

    Path loss gradient , usually is 4hb BTS antenna heighthmmobile station heightL0parameters related to frequency

    R

    T

    Flat Landform Propagation Model

  • Page22Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

    Application ScopeApplication Scope

    CharacteristicCharacteristic

    z Frequency range f:150~1500MHz

    z BTS antenna height Hb:30~200m

    z Mobile station height Hm:1~10m

    z Distance d:1~20km

    z Macro cell modelz The BTS antenna is taller than the surrounding buildingsz Predication is not applicable in 1kmz Not applicable to the circumstance where the frequency is above

    1500MHz

    Okumura-Hata Model

  • Page23Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

    Application ScopeApplication Scope

    z Frequency range f:1505~2000MHz

    z BTS antenna height Hb:30~200m

    z Mobile station height Hm:1~10m

    z Distance d:1~20km

    CharacteristicCharacteristic

    z Macro cell model

    z The BTS antenna is taller than the surrounding buildings

    z Predication is not applicable in 1km

    z Not applicable to the circumstance where the frequency is above 2000MHz or below 1500MHz

    COST 231-Hata Model

  • Page24Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

    Application ScopeApplication Scope

    z Frequency range : 800~2000MHz

    z BTS antenna height Hbase : 4~50m

    z Mobile station height Hmobile : 1~3m

    z Distance d : 0.02~5km

    CharacteristicCharacteristic

    z Urban environment, macro cell or micro cell

    z Not applicable to suburban or rural environment

    COST 231 Walfish-Ikegami Model

  • Page25Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

    K1: Propagation path loss constant valueK2: log(d) correction factorD: Distatnce between receiver and transmitter (m)K3: log(HTxeff) correction factorHTxeff: Transmitter antenna height (m)K4: Diffraction loss correction factorK5: log(HTxeff)log(D) correction factorK6: Correction factor

    : Receiver antenna height (m)Kclutter: clutter correction factor

    ( ) ( )( ) ( ) ( ) ( )clutterfKHKHDK

    lossnDiffractioKHKDKKPathLoss

    clutterRxeffTxeff

    Txeff

    ++++++=

    65