ï‚‍ Axial Skeleton †80 bones †lie along longitudinal axis...

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Transcript of ï‚‍ Axial Skeleton †80 bones †lie along longitudinal axis...

  • Tortora & Grabowski 9/e 2000 JWS

  • Axial Skeleton80 boneslie along longitudinal axisskull, hyoid, vertebrae, ribs, sternum, ear ossiclesAppendicular Skeleton126 bonesupper & lower limbs and pelvic & pectoral girdles

    7-*

    Tortora & Grabowski 9/e 2000 JWS

  • 5 basic types of bones:long = compactshort = spongy except surfaceflat = plates of compact enclosing spongyirregular = variablesesamoid = develop in tendons or ligaments (patella)Sutural bones = in joint between skull bones

    7-*

    Tortora & Grabowski 9/e 2000 JWS

  • Surface features-- rough area, groove, openings, processSpecific functionspassageway for blood vessels and nervesjoint formationmuscle attachment & contraction

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    Tortora & Grabowski 9/e 2000 JWS

  • Foramen = openingFossa = shallow depressionSulcus = grooveMeatus = tubelike passageway or canalCondyle = large, round protuberanceFacet = smooth flat articular surfaceTrochanter = very large projectionTuberosity = large, rounded, roughened projectionLearning the terms found in this Table will simplify your study of the skeleton.

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    Tortora & Grabowski 9/e 2000 JWS

  • 8 Cranial bonesprotect brain & house ear ossiclesmuscle attachment for jaw, neck & facial muscles14 Facial bonesprotect delicate sense organs -- smell, taste, visionsupport entrances to digestive and respiratory systems

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    Tortora & Grabowski 9/e 2000 JWS

  • FrontalParietal (2)Temporal (2)Occipital

    7-*SphenoidEthmoid

    Tortora & Grabowski 9/e 2000 JWS

  • Forehead, roof of orbits, & anterior cranial floorFrontal suture gone by age 6 (metopic suture)Supraorbital margin and frontal sinus

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    Tortora & Grabowski 9/e 2000 JWS

  • Parietalsides & roof of cranial cavityTemporaltemporal squamazygomatic process forms part of archexternal auditory meatusmastoid processstyloid processstylomastoid foramen(VII)mandibular fossa (TMJ)petrous portion (VIII)

    7-*

    Tortora & Grabowski 9/e 2000 JWS

  • Tortora & Grabowski 9/e 2000 JWS

  • Temporalcarotid foramen (carotid artery)jugular foramen (jugular vein)Occipitalforamen magnumoccipital condylesexternal occipital protuberance attachment for ligamentum nuchaesuperior & inferior nuchal lines

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    Tortora & Grabowski 9/e 2000 JWS

  • Tortora & Grabowski 9/e 2000 JWS

  • Base of skullPterygoid processes are attachment sites for jaw muscles

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    Tortora & Grabowski 9/e 2000 JWS

  • Body is a cubelike portion holding sphenoid sinusesGreater and lesser wingsPterygoid processes

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    Tortora & Grabowski 9/e 2000 JWS

  • Lesser wing & greater wingSella turcica holds pituitary glandOptic foramen

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    Tortora & Grabowski 9/e 2000 JWS

  • Cranial floor, lateral nasal walls & nasal septumCribriform plate & olfactory foraminaCrista galli for attachment of membranes cover the brain

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    Tortora & Grabowski 9/e 2000 JWS

  • Lateral masses contain ethmoid sinusesPerpendicular plate is upper part of nasal septumSuperior & middle nasal concha or turbinatesfilters & warms air

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    Tortora & Grabowski 9/e 2000 JWS

  • Nasal (2) Maxillae (2) Zygomatic (2)Mandible (1) Lacrimal (2) Palatine (2)Inferior nasal conchae (2) Vomer (1)

    7-*

    Tortora & Grabowski 9/e 2000 JWS

  • Floor of orbit, floor of nasal cavity or hard palateMaxillary sinusAlveolar processes hold upper teethCleft palate is lack of union of maxillary bones

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    Tortora & Grabowski 9/e 2000 JWS

  • CheekbonesLateral wall of orbit along with sphenoidPart of zygomatic arch along with part of temporal

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    Tortora & Grabowski 9/e 2000 JWS

  • Lacrimal bonespart of medial wall of orbitlacrimal fossa houses lacrimal sacInferior nasal concha or turbinate (not part of ethmoid)

    7-*Inferior Nasal Conchae

    Tortora & Grabowski 9/e 2000 JWS

  • Palatine L-shaped : one end is back part of hard palate, other end is part of orbit (see previous picture)Vomerposterior part of nasal septum

    7-*

    Tortora & Grabowski 9/e 2000 JWS

  • Body, angle & ramiCondylar & coronoid processesAlveolar processes for lower teethMandibular & mental foramen

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    Tortora & Grabowski 9/e 2000 JWS

  • Lambdoid suture unites parietal and occipitalSagittal suture unites 2 parietal bones

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    Tortora & Grabowski 9/e 2000 JWS

  • Coronal suture unites frontal and both parietal bonesSquamous suture unites parietal and temporal bones

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    Tortora & Grabowski 9/e 2000 JWS

  • Paired cavities in ethmoid, sphenoid, frontal and maxillaryLined with mucous membranes and open into nasal cavityResonating chambers for voice, lighten the skullSinusitis is inflammation of the membrane (allergy)

    7-*

    Tortora & Grabowski 9/e 2000 JWS

  • Tortora & Grabowski 9/e 2000 JWS

  • Dense connective tissue membrane-filled spaces (soft spots)Unossified at birth but close early in a child's life.Fetal skull passes through the birth canal.Rapid growth of the brain during infancy

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    Tortora & Grabowski 9/e 2000 JWS

  • Tortora & Grabowski 9/e 2000 JWS

  • Table 7.4 describes major openings of skullIn which bone would you find the following and what is their function?foramen magnumoptic foramenmandibular foramencarotid canalstylomastoid foramen

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    Tortora & Grabowski 9/e 2000 JWS

  • Roof is frontal and sphenoidLateral wall is zygomatic and sphenoidFloor is maxilla, zygomatic and sphenoidMedial wall is maxilla, lacrimal, ethmoid and sphenoidOrbital fissures and optic foramen

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    Tortora & Grabowski 9/e 2000 JWS

  • Divides nasal cavity into left and right sidesFormed by vomer, perpendicular plate of ethmoid and septal cartilageDeviated septum does not line in the midlinedevelopmental abnormality or trauma

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    Tortora & Grabowski 9/e 2000 JWS

  • Tortora & Grabowski 9/e 2000 JWS

  • U-shaped single boneArticulates with no other bone of the bodySuspended by ligament and muscle from skullSupports the tongue & provides attachment for tongue, neck and pharyngeal muscles

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    Tortora & Grabowski 9/e 2000 JWS

  • Backbone or spine built of 26 vertebraeFive vertebral regionscervical vertebrae (7) in the neckthoracic vertebrae ( 12 ) in the thoraxlumbar vertebrae ( 5 ) in the low back regionsacrum (5, fused)coccyx (4, fused)

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    Tortora & Grabowski 9/e 2000 JWS

  • Tortora & Grabowski 9/e 2000 JWS

  • Between adjacent vertebrae absorbs vertical shockPermit various movements of the vertebral columnFibrocartilagenous ring with a pulpy center

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    Tortora & Grabowski 9/e 2000 JWS

  • 7-*Primary curvesthoracic and sacral are formed during fetal developmentSecondary curvescervical if formed when infant raises head at 4 monthslumbar forms when infant sits up & begins to walk at 1 year

    Tortora & Grabowski 9/e 2000 JWS

  • Bodyweight bearingVertebral archpedicleslaminaeVertebral foramenSeven processes2 transverse1 spinous 4 articularVertebral notches

    7-*

    Tortora & Grabowski 9/e 2000 JWS

  • Tortora & Grabowski 9/e 2000 JWS

  • Spinal canal is all vertebral foramen togetherIntervertebral foramen are 2 vertebral notches together

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    Tortora & Grabowski 9/e 2000 JWS

  • Smaller bodiesLarger spinal canalTransverse processesshortertransverse foramen for vertebral arterySpinous processes of C2 to C6 often bifid1st and 2nd cervical vertebrae are uniqueatlas & axis

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    Tortora & Grabowski 9/e 2000 JWS

  • Tortora & Grabowski 9/e 2000 JWS

  • Atlas -- ring of bone, superior facets for occipital condylesnodding movement at atlanto-occipital joint signifies yesAxis -- dens or odontoid process is body of atlas pivotal movement at atlanto-axial joint signifies no

    7-*

    Tortora & Grabowski 9/e 2000 JWS

  • Larger and stronger bodies Longer transverse & spinous processesFacets or demifacets on body for head of ribFacets on transverse processes (T1-T10) for tubercle of rib

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    Tortora & Grabowski 9/e 2000 JWS

  • Strongest & largestShort thick spinous & transverse processesback musculature

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    Tortora & Grabowski 9/e 2000 JWS

  • Union of 5 vertebrae (S1 - S5) by age 30median sacral crest was spinous processessacral ala is fused transverse processesSacral canal ends at sacral hiatusAuricular surface & sacral tuberosity of SI joint

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    Tortora & Grabowski 9/e 2000 JWS

  • Union of 4 vertebrae (Co1 - Co4) by age 30Caudal or epidural anesthesia during deliveryinto sacral hiatus anesthetize sacral & coccygeal nervessacral and coccygeal cornu are important landmarks

    7-*

    Tortora & Grabowski 9/e 2000 JWS

  • Tortora & Grabowski 9/e 2000 JWS

  • Bony cage flattened from front to backSternum (breastbone)Ribs1-7 are true ribs (vertebrosternal)8-12 are false ribs (vertebrochondral)11-12 are floatingCostal cartilagesBodies of the thoracic vertebrae.

    7-*

    Tortora & Grabowski 9/e 2000 JWS

  • Manubrium1st & 2nd ribsclavicular notchBody