Support Systems in Animals 1 AXIAL APPENDICULAR AXIAL SKELETON Consists of the bones that lie around

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Transcript of Support Systems in Animals 1 AXIAL APPENDICULAR AXIAL SKELETON Consists of the bones that lie around

  • Life Sciences Grade 10

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    SESSION 8: SUPPORT SYSTEMS IN ANIMALS PART 1 KEY CONCEPTS

     hydrostatic skeleton, exoskeleton, endoskeleton – examples, advantages & disadvantages

     human skeleton – parts of axial & appendicular skeleton

     functions of skeleton

     structure of a long bone X-PLANATION Skeletons have three major functions:

    1. Support 2. Movement 3. Protection of internal organs

    HYDROSTATIC SKELETON:

     Consists of fluid held under pressure in a closed body compartment

     Protects body parts by cushioning them from shock

     Provides body shape, which can be changed by contracting muscles in the body wall

     Provides resistance for muscle action

     Earthworms, hydras, are examples of organisms with hydrostatic skeletons

    TYPES

    ENDOSKELETON

    HYDROSTATICEXOSKELETON

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    Hydra:

    Earthworm:

    EXOSKELETON:

    - Rigid external skeleton which can be hard or leathery

    The exoskeleton of arthropods is made of chitin.

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    ENDOSKELETON (INSIDE THE BODY):

     Consists of hard or leathery supporting elements situated among a variety of tissues

     Most echinoderms, including sea stars and sea urchins, have an endoskeleton of hard plates beneath their skin

     Vertebrate endoskeletons consist of cartilage or a combination of cartilage and bone

    Sea Urchin:

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    Starfish:

    TYPE OF SKELETON ADVANTAGES DISDAVANTAGES

    HYDROSTATIC No need for specialised structures or tissues. Very little energy needed for locomotion as it is aided by water or moist land environment

    Size is limited Must have moist habitat to survive Speed of locomotion limited

    EXOSKELETON Protects animal Good body support Reduces water loss Provides good leverage for muscle action

    Animal has to moult in order to grow Growth limited Movement limited to joints

    ENDOSKELETON Greater flexibility Can grow much larger than other types Good body support and shape Protects internal organs Provides more positions for muscle attachment – more power to muscles

    No outside protection Does not prevent dehydration Movement limited to joints

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    HUMAN SKELETAL SYSTEM

    AXIAL APPENDICULAR

    AXIAL SKELETON

    Consists of the bones that lie around the longitudinal axis of the human body Skull bones, auditory ossicles

    (ear bones), hyoid bone, ribs,

    sternum (breastbone), and

    bones of the vertebral column

    *** Hyoid bone - U-shaped bone in the neck to which the tongue is attached.

    Consists of the bones of the upper and lower limbs (extremities), plus the bones forming the girdles that connect the limbs to the axial skeleton

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     The Skull

     The Vertebral Column

    Cervical Vertebrae (7)

    Thoracic Vertebrae (12)

    Lumbar Vertebrae (5)

    Sacrum 5 (fused)

    Coccyx 4 (fused)

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     The Thorax

     The Rib Cage and Sternum

    Sternum - Manubrium, body, xiphoid process True Ribs (7) False Ribs (3) Floating Ribs (2)

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    THE APPENDICULAR SKELETON

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     The Pelvic Girdle

     Comparing male and female pelvic girdles:

     General Functions:

    • Support - framework that supports body and cradles its soft organs • Protection - for delicate organs, heart, lungs, brain • Movement - bones act as levers for muscles • Mineral storage - calcium & phosphate • Blood cell formation - from bone marrow

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     Types of bones making up the skeletal system:

    • Long Bones - metacarpals, metatarsals, phalanges, humerus, ulna, radius, tibia, fibula

    • Short Bones - carpals, tarsals • Flat Bones - rib, scapula, skull, sternum • Irregular Bones - vertebrae, some facial bones

    X-AMPLE QUESTIONS Question 1: Explain 3 functions of the skeletal system.

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    Question 2: Complete the table below:

    Bones of Skeletal System

    Axial or Appendicular Skeleton

    Tarsals 1

    Vertebrae 2

    Ribcage 3

    Scapula 4

    Pelvis 5

    Mandible 6

    Question 3: Study the diagrams and answer the questions:

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    3.1 Identify parts labelled 2, 4 and 5. 3.2 What is the function of structure labelled 8? 3.3 Why are parts labelled 10 referred to as false ribs? 3.4 Provide the numbers of the following parts: a) floating ribs b) sternum Question 4: Study the following diagram and answer the questions:

    4.1 Provide labels for parts A,B,C and D. 4.2 In which region (1 or 2) would you find the little toe. Provide a reason for your

    answer.

    A

    B C

    D

    1

    2