The Skeleton: Bones & Joints

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The Skeleton: Bones & Joints. Chapter 7 Anatomy & Physiology I. Outline . BONES Main functions Bone structure Bone growth and repair Bone markings BONES OF THE AXIAL SKELETON Framework of the skull Framework of the trunk BONES OF THE APPENDICULAR SKELETON Upper division - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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The Skeleton: Bones & Joints

The Skeleton: Bones & JointsChapter 7 Anatomy & Physiology IOutline BONES Main functionsBone structureBone growth and repairBone markingsBONES OF THE AXIAL SKELETON Framework of the skullFramework of the trunkBONES OF THE APPENDICULAR SKELETON Upper divisionLower divisionDISORDERS OF BONE Metabolicosteoporosis, osteopenia, osteitis deformans, osteomalacia, ricketsTumorsInfectionosteomyelitis, tuberculosis (in spine is called Pott disease)Structural disorderscurvature of the spine, cleft palate, flat footFracturesclosed, open, greenstick, impacted, comminuted, spiral, transverse, obliqueChanges in agingloss of calcium salts, decreased collagen production, thinning of intervertebral disks, loss of flexibilityTHE JOINTS (ARTICULATIONS) Kinds of jointsMore about synovial jointsDisorders of JointsJoint repair

SkeletonSkeletal system is made up of bones, joints, and supporting connective tissueFramework on which the body is constructedMust be strong enough to support & protect all body structuresMost dense form of connective tissue in the bodyConsists of 206 bones, joints & supporting connective tissue

Framework for entire bodyProtection of delicate structures like brain & spinal cordLevers to assist muscles in providing movementStorehouse for Ca++ salts Produce blood cells in red marrowBone Functions206 bonesAxial skeleton 80 bones -skull, facial bones, spine, ribcageAppendicular skeleton 126 bones - pelvic bones, collarbones, extremity bones

II. Bone Structurea. Long BonesLong bonesDiaphysis long narrow shaftMedullary cavity middle of diaphysis, contains marrowEpiphysis ends of long bone

b. Bone Tissue Osseus TissueBones are alive. Bones are organs, with their own system of blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and nerves.2 types of bone CompactSpongy, aka Cancellous

Compact BoneMakes up main shaft in long bones & outer layer in other bonesHaversian System ring of bone tissue surrounding a canal for nerves blood vesselsHaversian canals canal through which nerves & blood vessels travel in boneLacunae space in which bones cells (osteocytes) live Volkmann canals tunnels for nerves and vessels that lead to the outside of the bone

Compact Bone

Cancellous (Spongy) BoneSpongy appearance because it has more spaces than compact boneFilled with red bone marrowFound at the epiphyses (ends) of long bones & at the center of other bones

Checkpoint 7-1: A long bone has a long narrow shaft and two irregular ends. What are the scientific names for the shaft and the ends of a long bone?

Checkpoint 7-2: What are the two types of osseus (bone) tissue and where is each type found?c. Bone MarrowRed marrow in epiphyses of long bones & center of other bonesRed bone marrow manufactures blood cells. Yellow marrow in central cavities of the long bonesComposed mainly of fat d. Bone MembranesPeriosteum Covering on the outside of bonesInner layer made of osteoblasts (bone producing cells)Rich blood and nerve supply to nourish boneEndosteum very thin covering that lines the marrow cavity in a bone

e. Bone Growth & RepairEmbryonic skeleton is mainly cartilaginous (parts of skull fibrous CT)Osteoblasts bone producing cells Become active between 8 &12 weeksFrom stem cells in endosteum & periosteumOssification conversion of cartilage to boneOsteoblasts form a matrix (the material between cells) mainly of collagenEnzymes help deposit Ca++ in the matrixOsteoblasts remain enclosed in lacunae and are now called osteocytesOsteocytes mature bone cells that do not produce new boneBone Growth & RepairOsteoclasts responsible for breakdown or resorption of bone tissueDevelop from monocytes (WBC)Necessary for remodeling and repair of bone during growth & development, & after injuryBone tissue formation & resorption regulated by hormonesBone formation & resorption continues throughout lifeCheckpoint 7-3: What are the three types of cells found in bone and what is the role of each?Which of these is a bone-building cell? a. osteoblastb. osteoclastc. osteocyteFormation of Long BonesOssification begins at the center of the diaphysis during fetal developmentEpiphysial plates bone forming centers at the ends of long bones that appear around birthLong bones grow in length from the epiphyseal plates throughout childhoodLong bones grow wider in diaphysis as medullary cavity growsCalcification ends in late teens, early 20s and epiphyseal plate hardens

Ossification

Checkpoint 7-4: As the embryonic skeleton is converted from cartilage to bone, the intercellular matrix becomes hardened. What compounds are deposited in the matrix to harden it?

Checkpoint 7-5: After birth, long bones continue to grow in length at secondary centers. What are these centers called?f. Bone MarkingsProjections sticky-outy thingsHeadProcessCondyleCrestSpineDepressions dents or holesForamenSinusFossaMeatusBony ProjectionsHead large knobby end attached to a bony neck (femur)Process large projection of bone (styloid process radius & ulna) for muscle attachmentCondyle rounded projection of bone (humerus at elbow)Crest distinct border or ridge (pelvic bone has a crest)Spine sharp projection from the surface of bone (spinous)

Bony DepressionsForamen hole that acts as a tunnel for nerves, vesselsForamena - holesSinus air space found in some skull bonesFossa depression on a bone surfaceFossae - depressionsMeatus short channel or passage, like ear canal80 bones of the head & trunkSkull 28 bonesCranium 8 bonesFacial bones 14 bonesEar bones (ossicles)- 6 ( 3 in each ear)Trunk 52 bonesHyoid in throat, for muscle attachment26 vertebrae12 pair ribs (24 total)Sternum

III. Bones of the Axial SkeletonCraniumEncloses the brain8 bonesFrontal bone2 parietal bones2 temporal bonesEthmoid boneSphenoid boneOccipital bone

Cranium ContinuedFrontal bone forehead boneFrontal sinuses over eyesParietal bones top of the head & top sides of the headTemporal bones sides of head around earsMastoid sinuses Ear canal, eardrumMastoid process behind external earCranium ContinuedEthmoid between the eyesContains paranasal sinuses Forms nasal septumSuperior & middle conchae along walls of nasal cavitySphenoid forms part of eye socket, inside head Sella turcica depression that holds & protects pituitary glandOcciput base of skullForamen magnum large hole for spinal cord to connect to brain

Cranial SuturesSuture flat, immovable joint that unites cranial bonesCoronal suture joins frontal bone with parietal bonesSquamous suture joins temporal bones with parietal bones (on flat part of skull)Lamboid suture joins occipital bones with parietal bonesSagittal suture joins the parietal bones

14 Facial BonesMandible 2 Maxillae2 Zygomatic bones2 Nasal bones2 Lacrimal bonesVomer2 Palatine bones2 Inferior nasal conchae

Facial BonesMandible lower jaw bone; only moveable bone of the skull2 maxillae fuse to each other to form upper jaw bone, front of hard palate Maxillary sinuses2 zygomatic bones cheek bones2 nasal bones bridge of noseFacial Bones2 Lacrimal bones corners of the eyes, size of fingernailVomer lower part of nasal septum2 Palatine bones back of hard palate2 Inferior nasal conchae along the lower sides of the nasal cavity

Infant Skull

Vertebral Column26 bones in vertebral column7 cervical12 thoracic5 lumbar1 sacrum1 coccyx

VertebraeBody weight bearing discs of cartilage that act as shock absorbers between them Spinous process projects posteriorlyTransverse process projects laterally Bony arch which forms a foramen for spinal cordIntervertebral foramina between the vertebrae for spinal nerves to pass through

Spinal ColumnCervical 7 neck bonesAtlas first neck bone; to support headAxis second neck bone; to move headOnly 2 spinal bones without a bodyThoracic 12 bones Ribs attach to these vertebraeAtlas & Axis

Spinal ColumnLumbar 5 lower back bonesLarge & heavySacrum form part of pelvic girdleCoccyx tailbone Spinal ColumnHas 4 curves corresponding to groups of vertebrae which develop through childhoodFetus curled up & this is first curveInfant lifts head, develops 2nd curveToddler develops 3rd & 4th curve as learns to walkDevelopment of Spinal Curves

Thorax Sternum aka breastboneManubrium superior aspect, joins with collarboneSternal angle where manubrium joins bodyBody long & bladelike & joins with rib pairs 2-7Xiphoid process tip at inferior aspectRibs 12 pair attached to thoracic spine posteriorlyRib pairs 1-7 true ribs attach to sternumRib pairs 8-12 false ribs 8-10 attach to cartilage11-12 floating ribs with no anterior attachment

126 bones of the shoulders, hips & extremitiesUpper division of appendicular skeletonShoulder girdleUpper extremityLower division of appendicular skeletonPelvisLower extremityIV. Bones of the Appendicular SkeletonShoulder GirdleClavicle aka collarboneMost frequently fractured bone in bodyConnects to sternum & scapulaScapula aka shoulder bladeSpine posterior ridge Supraspinous fossa above spineInfraspionous fossa below spineAcromian attaches to clavicleGlenoid cavity forms arm socketCoracoid process for muscle attachmentShoulder Girdle Anterior & Posterior

Scapular Anatomy

Upper ExtremityHumerus armHead fits into scapula glenoid fossaMedial & lateral epicondyle for tendon attachmentTrochlea part of elbow jointForearmRadiusUlna

Humerus

ForearmUlna medial sideOlecranon point of elbowTrochlear notch indention into which trochlea of humerus fits, which allows hinge action of elbowStyloid process at distal end visible when arm is supineRadius on lateral (thumb side)Forearm bones are parallel in anatomical