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With the largest number of life insurance policies in force in the world,

Insurance happens to be a mega opportunity in India. It’s a business

growing at the rate of 15-20 per cent annually and presently is of the order

of Rs 1560.41 billion (for the financial year 2006  – 2007). Together with

banking services, it adds about 7% to the country’s Gross Domestic

Product (GDP). The gross premium collection is nearly 2% of GDP andfunds available with LIC for investments are 8% of the GDP.

Even so nearly 65% of the Indian population is without life insurance cover

while health insurance and non-life insurance continues to be below

international standards. A large part of our population is also subject to

weak social security and pension systems with hardly any old age income

security A well-developed and evolved insurance sector is needed for economic

development as it provides long term funds for infrastructure development

and strengthens the risk taking ability of individuals. It is estimated that

over the next ten years India would require investments of the order of 

one trillion US dollars.

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Insurance constitutes one of the major segments of the financial market.Insurance services play predominant role in the process of financialintermediary. Today insurance industry is one of the most growing sectorsin India. There is lot of potential in the Indian Insurance Industry.

There are many issues, which require study. The scope of the study of insurance industry of India would be very great as there are ongoingdevelopments in the industry after the opening of the sector.

The major issue right now is the hike in FDI (Foreign Direct Investment)

limit from 26% to 49% in the insurance sector. Government may in near future allow 49% FDI in Insurance. This would lead to more capital inflowby foreign partners.

 Another major issue is the effects on LIC after the entry of private players inthe market. Though market share of LIC has been affected, it has improvedin terms of efficiency.

There are number of other hot topics like penetration of Health Insurance,

Rural marketing of insurance, new distribution channels, new productranges, insurance brokers’ regulation, incentive scheme of development officers of LIC etc. So it offers lot of scope for studying the insuranceindustry.

Right now the insurance industry has great opportunities in a country likeIndia or China which huge population. Also the penetration of insurance inIndia is very low in both life and non-life segment so there is lot potential tobe tapped.Before starting the discussion on insurance industry and related issues, we

have to start with the basics of insurance. So first we understand what is

insurance?  How the word  ‘insurance’  is different from the word 

‘assurance’? etc. 

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An insurance contract is based on some basic principles of insurance.

(1) Principle of “Uberrima Fides” or Principle of utmost good faith 

This principle is applicable to both life insurance and general insurance.

It means “maximum truth”. Both the parties should disclose all material

information regarding the subject matter of insurance.

(2) Principle of insurable interest

This principle is applicable to both life insurance and general insurance.

The assured must have insurance interest in the life or property insured. Insurable

interest is that interest which considerably alters the position of the assured in the

event of loss taking place and if the event does not take

placed, he remains in the same old position. 

(3) Principle of indemnityThis principle is applicable to general insurance only.

This means that if the insured suffers a loss against which the policy has been

made, he shall be fully indemnified only to the extent of loss. In other words, the

insured is not entitled to make a profit on his loss.

(4) Principle of Contribution

This principle is applicable to contract of Indemnity.

According to this principle the insured can claim the compeensation only to the

extent of actual loss.

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(5) Principle of subrogation

This principle is applicable to all contract of Indemnity.

According to this principle when insured is compensated for the loss due to the

damade to his insured property, then the ownership right of such property shifts to

the insurer.

(6) Principle of Loss Minimization

According to this principle it is the duity of insured to take all the possible steps to

minimize the loss to the insured property on the happening of uncertain events.

(4) Principle of causa proxima

It means when caused is caused by more than one cause.

Property is insured against some causes and not all cause as per the subject matter

to the insurance. If the proximation cause is the one which is insured against the

insurance company is bound to pay the compensation.  

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1912: The Indian Life Assurance Companies Act enacted as the first

statute to regulate the life insurance business.

1928: The Indian Insurance Companies Act enacted to enable the

government to collect statistical information about both life and non-life

insurance businesses.

1938: Earlier legislation consolidated and amended by the Insurance Act

with the objective of protecting the interests of the insuring public.

1956: 245 Indian and foreign insurers along with provident societies were

taken over by the central government and nationalized. LIC was formed by

an Act of Parliament- LIC Act 1956- with a capital contribution of Rs. 5

crore from the Government of India.

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Reforms in the Insurance sector were initiated with the passage of the

IRDA Bill in Parliament in December 1999. The IRDA since its

incorporation as a statutory body in April 2000 has fastidiously stuck to

its schedule of framing regulations and registering the private sector

insurance companies. Since being set up as an independent statutory

body the IRDA has put in a framework of globally compatible


The other decision taken simultaneously to provide the supporting

systems to the insurance sector and in particular the life insurance

companies was the launch of the IRDA online service for issue and

renewal of licenses to agents. The approval of institutions for imparting

training to agents has also ensured that the insurance companies would

have a trained workforce of insurance agents in place to sell their


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The insurer is the insurance company that offer the policies.

InsuredIt is that person in whose name the insurance policy is made isrefered as the policy holder or insured

PolicyThe document laying down the term of contact is called insurance


Subject matter to InsuranceThe property which is insured is the subject matter of insurance.

PremiumThe amount you pay to insurance company to uy the policy.Their are two typr of premiums.

1)  Single Premium Policy2)   Annual Premium Policy

Sum AssuredIt is that amount of money as insurance policy gurantee to paybefore any bonuses are added. In other words it is the guaranteeamount you will receive.

Maturity ValuesIt is that amount the insurance company has to pay you when thepolicy mature.

Sum assured + Bonuses

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TermTerm is the noumber of years you brought the policy for.

Endowment Insurance You are lfe cover just like insurance if you die during this period,your beneficary will get what ever amount you are insured for.

Term Life InsuranceTerm Life Insurance provides protection for a specified period of time. A death benefit is paid to the beneficiary if the insured dieswithin a specified period of time while the policy is still in force.

Whole Life InsuranceWhole Life insurance is a permanent life insurance and providesprotection for life. As long as premiums are paid, a death benefitis paid to the beneficiary. ULIPs

 A ULIP is a life insurance which provides a combination of LifeInsurance protection and investment. Money can be invested inthe following fund:- Equity Fund, Debt Fund, Money Market Fund(Liquid Fund) and Balance Fund.

 Annuities Annuities are practically the same as pension. Pension providesperiodical payments to the employees, who have retired. Theyare paid as long as the recipient is alive. Annuities are called the

 ―reverse‖ of Life Insurance. 

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Few men in history have made as dramatic a contribution to their

country’s economic fortunes as did the founder of Reliance, Sh.

Dhirubhai H Ambani. Fewer still have left behind a legacy that is more

enduring and timeless.

   As with all great pioneers, there is more than one unique way of 

describing the true genius of Dhirubhai: The corporate visionary, the

unmatched strategist, the proud patriot, the leader of men, the

architect of India’s capital markets, the champion of shareholder


  But the role Dhirubhai cherished most was perhaps that of India’sgreatest wealth creator. In one lifetime, he built, starting from the

proverbial scratch, India’s largest private sector enterprise.

  When Dhirubhai embarked on his first business venture, he had a

seed capital of barely US$ 300 (around Rs 14,000). Over the next

three and a half decades, he converted this fledgling enterprise into a

Rs 60,000 crore colossus —an achievement which earned Reliance a

place on the global Fortune 500 list, the first ever Indian private

company to do so.

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  Dhirubhai is widely regarded as the father of India’s capital markets.

In 1977, when Reliance Textile Industries Limited first went public,

the Indian stock market was a place patronised by a small club of 

elite investors which dabbled in a handful of stocks.

  Undaunted, Dhirubhai managed to convince a large number of first-

time retail investors to participate in the unfolding Reliance story and

put their hard-earned money in the Reliance Textile IPO, promising

them, in exchange for their trust, substantial return on their

investments. It was to be the start of one of great stories of mutual

respect and reciprocal gain in the Indian markets.

  Under Dhirubhai’s extraordinary vision and leadership, Reliance

scripted one of the greatest growth stories in corporate history

anywhere in the world, and went on to become India’s largest private

sector enterprise.

  Through out this amazing journey, Dhirubhai always kept the

interests of the ordinary shareholder uppermost in mind, in the

process making millionaires out of many of the initial investors in the

Reliance stock, and creating one of the world’s largest shareholder


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Reliance Life Insurance Company Limited is a part of Reliance Capital Ltd. of the

Reliance -  Anil Dhirubhai Ambani Group. Reliance Capital is one of India’s leading

private sector financial services companies, and ranks among the top 3 private sector

financial services and banking companies, in terms of net worth. Reliance Capital has

interests in asset management and mutual funds, stock broking, life and general

insurance, proprietary investments, private equity and other activities in financial


  Reliance Capital Limited (RCL) is a Non-Banking Financial Company (NBFC)

registered with the Reserve Bank of India under section 45-IA of the Reserve Bank 

of India Act, 1934.

  Reliance Capital sees immense potential in the rapidly growing financial services

sector in India and aims to become a dominant player in this industry and offer fully

integrated financial services.

  Reliance Life Insurance is another step forward for Reliance Capital Limited to offer

need based Life Insurance solutions to individuals and Corporates.

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There are three parties in a life insurance transaction: the insurer, the insured, and the

owner of the policy (policyholder), although the owner and the insured are often the

same person. Another important person involved in a life insurance policy is the

beneficiary. The beneficiary is the person or persons who will receive the policy

proceeds upon the death of the insured.

Life insurance may be divided into two basic classes – term and permanent.

• Term life insurance provides for life insurance coverage for a specified term of years

for a specified premium. The policy does not accumulate cash value.

• Permanent life insurance is life insurance that remains in force until the policy

matures, unless the owner fails to pay the premium when due.

• Whole life insurance provides for a level premium, and a cash value table included

in the policy guaranteed by the company. The primary advantages of whole life are

guaranteed death benefits, guaranteed cash values, fixed and known annual premiums,

and mortality and expense charges will not reduce the cash value shown in the policy.

• Universal life insurance (UL) is a relatively new insurance product intended to

provide permanent insurance coverage with greater flexibility in premium payment

and the potential for a higher internal rate of return. A universal life policy includes a

cash account. Premiums increase the cash account.

If you want insurance protection only, and not a savings and investment product, buy

a term life insurance policy. If you want to buy a whole life, universal life, or other

cash value policy, plan to hold it for at least 15 years. Canceling these policies after

only a few years can more than double your life insurance costs. Check the national

Association of Insurance Commissioners website ( or your local

library for information on the financial soundness of insurance companies. 

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Unmarried 1.  Go on a holiday

2.  Buy a nnew Car3.  Set up a new house

4.  Set up a interiors

5.  Buy jewellaey

Short TermEndowmentProducts



Married 1.  High Debt

2.  High ExpenditurePhase

3.  Loe AccumulatedWealth

4.  Need for PlanningRequirement

Temporary Term

Whole Life Product




couple1.  Retirement Planning

2.  Wealth transfer orsaving Vehical

3.  Return onInvestment

4.  Opting forguaranteed Product

Profit or UnitLinked Plans


Deferred Annuities





Retirement1.  Protection in case

you live long

2.  Protection forspouse in case of death

3.  Wealth accumulationfor children

Single Premium Annuities

Long Term careProducts

Whole LifeProducts

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Protection Plans

Protect your family even when you’re not around by investing in Reliance

Protection Plans.

Choose a limited period plan or a lifetime protection plan depending onyour needs. The latest

Protection Plans are as below… 

1. Reliance Term plan2. Reliance Simple Term plan3. Reliance Special Term plan4. Reliance Credit Guardian plan

5. Reliance Special Credit Guardian plan6. Reliance Endowment plan7. Reliance Special Endowment plan8. Reliance Connect 2 Life plan9. Reliance Whole Life plan10. Reliance Wealth + Health plan11. Reliance Cash Flow plan

Savings & Investment PlansReliance Savings & Investment Plans help you to set aside some money toachieve

specific goals in life, which means that you can enjoy life and provide foryour family’s 

daily needs. The savings and investment Plans are as below… 

1. Reliance Total Investment Plan Series I - Insurance

2. Reliance Wealth + Health plan3. Reliance Automatic Investment plan4. Reliance Money Guarantee plan5. Reliance Cash Flow plan6. Reliance Market Return plan 7. Reliance Endowment plan8. Reliance Special Endowment plan

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9. Reliance Whole Life plan10. Reliance Golden Years Plan11. Reliance Golden Years Plan Value12. Reliance Golden Years Plan Plus

13. Reliance Connect 2 Life plan14. Reliance life Highest NAV guarantee plan

Retirement Plans

Invest today in Reliance Retirement Plans and save money to enjoy lifeeven after retirement. You

will never have to depend on another person or make any compromises to

maintain your currentlifestyle. The latest Retirement Plans are as below… 

1. Reliance Total Investment Plan Series II – Pension2. Reliance Golden Years Plan3. Reliance Golden Years Plan Value4. Reliance Golden Years Plan Plus5. Reliance Wealth + Health plan6. Reliance Automatic Investment Plan7. Reliance Money Guarantee Plan

Child Plans

Save systematically and secure your child’s future needs by investing in

Reliance Child Plans. You

can always be there for your child when he or she needs you. The Childsplans are as below… 

1. Reliance Child plan

2. Reliance Secure Child plan3.Reliance Wealth + Health plan 

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(1) Reliance Children Plans

What could make you happier than knowing, that your child's future issecure? Nothing, we suppose. Which is why, Reliance Life Insurance

brings to you Reliance Secure Child Plan, a unit-linked Insurance Plan,that gives you the freedom to enjoy today with your child, because histomorrow is in safe hands.

  Do you see your child becoming a trailblazer?  Will they create the ultimate symphony or give sports a new


Our children may just be the ones to end the arms race and wipe outpoverty from the face of the Earth. But for them to be able to aim for

the skies, YOU NEED TO ACT NOW!

Introducing Reliance Secure Child Plan - a unique life insurance cum

savings plan. secure the future of your child.

Key FeaturesInsurance cover on the life of child Your child is completely protected - we will continue topay the premiums even if you are not aliveLife time income to child in the event of disability

Return Shield option to protect your investment returnsLiquidity in the form of partial withdrawalsCapital guarantee available on maturity and on death of 

the child for basic and top-up premiumsOption to package with Accidental Death and Total andPermanent Disablement Rider, Critical Conditions Riderand Term Life Insurance Benefit Rider.

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(2)Reliance Health + Wealth Policy



There are times when late working hours take precedence over yourhealth check-ups. And there are times when a visit to the doctor seemsmore important than dividends on your shares. In the rat race to make

money, we often forget to take care of ourselves.

We understand this predicament. Here is a plan that will ensure thatyour wealth keeps increasing constantly and yet your health does nottake a backseat. The Reliance Wealth Health Plan. A plan that gives you

the benefits of wealth bhi. health bhi.

Life changes. And as it does, so do your priorities. After all, thecircumstances of your life can determine the type of health coverage you


India has made rapid strides in the health sector. Since Independence,

life expectancy has gone up markedly and survival rates have alsoincreased, still critical health issues remain. Infectious diseases continue

to claim a large number of lives.

Reliance Wealth + Health Plan, a health insurance plan underwritten byReliance Life Insurance Company Limited, is designed to work in

conjunction with contributions towards savings.

Key Feature A Unit Linked plan with Unique Savings ComponentTwin benefit of market linked return and health protectionChoose from two different plan options

Flexibility to take care of your family’s health 

Flexibility to switch between funds / plan optionsOption to pay Top-ups

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(3) Reliance Pension Policy


Retirement means different things to different people, while some want

to relax and take a trip around the world, some want to start up aventure of their own, and pursue a dream harnessed for years. Thepower to make your autumn years special lies only with you. TheReliance Super Golden Years Plan gives you the power and the right kindof solution - A retirement plan that allows you to save systematically and

generate the much-needed corpus to make your olden years look golden.

Key Features  –  Reliance Pension Policy :Invest systematically and secure your golden years A flexible unit-linked pension product that is different fromtraditional life insurance products with Vesting Agebetween 45 & 70 years

Eight different investment funds to choose fromFlexibility to switch between fundsOption to pay Regular, Single as well as Top-up premiumsFlexibility to advance / extend your Vesting AgeTax free commutation up to one third of Fund Value at Vesting Age

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(4) Reliance Whole life insurance policy

 You’ve always loved your family. As a loving person you want to be restassured that they will be happy, even if something were to happen to

you. With Reliance Whole Life Plan you can be sure that your family willreceive that timely financial support they need.Go ahead, live your today to the fullest, without a worry abouttomorrow.

Key FeaturesInsurance protection till age 85Choice of extending your insurance coverage till age 99Convenient Premium Payment Term

Wealth creation through bonus additionsMore value for your money by way of High Sum AssuredRebate Get Sum Assured plus Bonuses in case of your

unfortunate deathOption to add two Riders – Critical Illness and AccidentalDeath Benefit and Total and Permanent DisablementRiderPolicy Loan available after three full years premiumpayment

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16.6 Major Players in the Life Insurance 

Birla Sun Life Insurance Company: -

Birla Sun Life Insurance Company is a 74:26 joint venture between Birla groupand Sun Life Financial. It is a private sector company. The company was registered

on 31/1/2001. The market share for FY 2005- 06 was 1.89%.

 HDFC – Standard: -

HDFC standard is a 74:26 joint venture between HDFC and Standard Life. It is a

private sector company. The company was registered on 23/10/2000. The market

share for FY 2005-06 was 2.87%.

 ICICI Prudential Life Insurance: -

ICICI Prudential Life is a 74:26 joint venture between ICICI and Prudential. It is a

private sector company. The company was registered on 24/11/2000. The market

share for FY 2005-06 was 7.35%.

 Life Insurance Corporation of India (LIC): -

Life Insurance Corporation of India is a 100% government held Public Sector

Company. Being the first to be established LIC is the forerunner in the Life

Insurance sector. The market share for FY 2005-06 was 71.44%.

 Kotak Mahindra OLD Mutual: -

Kotak Mahindra OLD Mutual is a 74:26 joint venture between Kotak Mahindra

bank and Old Mutual. It is a private sector company. The company was registeredon 10/1/2001. The market share for FY 2005-06 was 1.11%.

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 Max New York Life: -

Max New York Life is a 74:26 joint venture between J & Bank, Pallonji & Co and

MetLife. It is a private sector company. The company was registered on 6/8/2001.

The market share for FY 2005-06 was 1.23%.

 Aviva Life Insurance India: -

Aviva Life insurance is a 74:26 joint venture between Aviva and Dabur. It is a

private sector company. The company was registered on 14/5/2002. The market

share for FY 2005-06 was 1.14%.

ING Vysya Life insurance: -

ING Vysya Life Insurance is joint venture between Exide (50%), Gujarat Cements

(14.87%), Enam (9.13%) and ING (26 %). It is a private sector company. The

company was registered on 2/8/2001. The market share for FY 2005-06 is 0.79%.

Met Life India: -

Met Life India is a 74:26 joint venture between 74:26 JV between J & Bank,

Pallonji & Co and MetLife. It is a private sector company. The company was

registered on 6/8/2001. The market share for FY 2005-06 was 0.40%.

 Bajaj Allianz Life Insurance Co.: -

Bajaj Allianz Life Insurance Company is a 74: 26 Joint venture between Bajaj

Auto limited and Allianz AIG. The company was registered on 3/8/2001. The

market share for FY 2005-06 was 7.56%.

 SBI Life Insurance Company Ltd: -

SBI Life Insurance Company is a 74: 26 Joint venture between SBI and Cardiff 

S.A. The company was registered on 31/3/2001.It is a private sector company. The

market share for FY 2005-06 was 2.31%.

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 The TATA AIG Group: -

TATA AIG group is a 74:26 JV between Tata Group and AIG. It belongs to the

private sector. The company was registered on 12/2/2001. The market share for FY

2005-06 was 1.29%.

  Sahara India Life Insurance Company Ltd.: -First Wholly Indian Owned

Private Life Insurance Company. The Company commenced operations from 30th

October 2004. The market share for FY 2005-06 was 0.06 %. 

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1) Nomination: -

When one makes a nomination, as the policyholder you continue to be the owner

of the policy and the nominee does not have any right under the policy so long as

you are alive. The nominee has only the right to receive the policy monies in case

of your death within the term of the policy.

2) Assignment: -

If your intention is that your policy monies should go only to a particular person,

you need to assign the policy in favor of that person.

3) Death Benefit: -

The primary feature of a life insurance policy is the death benefit it provides.

Permanent policies provide a death benefit that is guaranteed for the life of the

insured, provided the premiums have been paid and the policy has not been


4)Cash Value: -

The cash value of a permanent life insurance policy is accumulated throughout the

life of the policy. It equals the amount a policy owner would receive, after any

applicable surrender charges, if the policy were surrendered before the insured's


5) Dividends: -

Many life insurance companies issue life insurance policies that entitle the policy

owner to share in the company's divisible surplus.

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6) Paid-Up Additions: -

Dividends paid to a policy owner of a participating policy can be used in numerous

ways, one of which is toward the purchase of additional overage,

called paid-up additions.

7) Policy Loans: -

Some life insurance policies allow a policy owner to apply for a loan against the

value of their policy. Either a fixed or variable rate of interest is charged. This

feature allows the policy owner an easily accessible loan in times of need or


8) Conversion from Term to Permanent: -

When in need of temporary protection, individuals often purchase term life

insurance. If one owns a term policy, sometimes a provision is available hat will

allow her to convert her policy to a permanent one without providing additional

proof of insurability.

9) Disability Waiver of Premium 

Waiver of Premium is an option or benefit that can be attached to a life insurance

policy at an additional cost. It guarantees that coverage will stay inforce and

continue to grow.

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1) Risk cover: -

Life Insurance contracts allow an individual to have a risk cover against any

unfortunate event of the future.

2) Tax Deduction: -

Under section 80C of the Income Tax Act of 1961 one can get tax deduction on

premiums up to one lakh rupees. Life Insurance policies thus decrease the total

taxable income of an individual.

3) Loans: -

An individual can easily access loans from different financial institutions by

pledging his insurance policies.

4) Retirement Planning: -

What had provided protection against the financial consequences of 

premature death may now be used to help them enjoy their retirement years.

Moreover the cash value can be used as an additional income in the old age.

5) Educational Needs: -

Similar to retirement planning the cash values that flow from ones life

insurance schemes can be utilized for educational needs of the insurer or his