Wenceslau Teixeira Terra Preta Receipes 2012

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Presentation at II Workshop of Terra Preta Program - WUR / EMBRAPA / INPA - MANAUS 2012

Transcript of Wenceslau Teixeira Terra Preta Receipes 2012

Terra Preta recipes are not creating Terra Preta: What is missing ?

Wenceslau Teixeira

Embrapa SolosManaus Brazil

Assumptions Terra Preta in this talk means the antropic horizons found in the Amazon - called - Terra Preta de ndio (Amazonian Dark Earths) - The (receipts) properties that we are trying to mimic is mainly to improve agronomic quality of soils

Dark soil horizons Terras Pretas Tipically A horizons darkened by organic substances Classified byColor (low values > 4 - typically 3) Carbon content (organic) Width Concentration of exchangeable bases Phosphorus levels

Terra Pretas

Alquimia dos microorganismos ? X Melanizao de horizonte enriquecido (o horizonte AB ou BA o mais rico em P e outros nutrientes em muitos perfis)

In Brazil Antropic A horizons are found in the soil Argissolos (Acrisols) Latossolos (Ferralsols) Espodossolos (Spodosols) Neossolos Flvicos ( Neossolos Quartzarenicos (Aluvisols) Gleissolos (Gleysols) Plintossolos (Plintosols)Contudo deve atender o critrio de > 250 ppm de P2O5 (cido ctrico)

The european Terras PretasPlaggic Anthrossols

must have a plaggic horizon > 50 cm depth, containing artefacts, having texture of sand to loam. Munsell colours with values 4 or less (moist) or 5 (dry) and chroma of 2 or less (moist). Carbono is 0.6% or more and P2O5 (citric acid) > 250 mg kg-1.

Until know is not proved to have plaggen epipedons in the Amazon

Examples

of Plaggic An throsols of Oldenburg, Germany - Source: Luise Giani - Oldemburg Univsitt

SambaquisFrequently they contain burial remains covered by dark soil and rare lithic artifacts. The sambaquis are believed to have been intentionally built by a population that inhabited the region for over 6000 years. Frequently the sambaquis show dark horizons but not only in the top horizon, but also dispersed in a complex stratigraphic sequence. The mechanism of stabilization of the carbon in the sambaquis is not clear, but probably is involved in the heating of organic material (pyrolysis) and large amounts of available calcium from the shells. Those horizon resembling, at least in some aspects, similar process involved in the formation of the A chernozems (from a geological parent material rich in carbonates).

Sambaquis (antropic shell monds)The sambaquis are found mainly along the Brazilian coast and are predominantly constituted of piled up mollusk shells and sediments in very complex stratigraphic configurations.

Dark layers in an sambaqui. Source Paulo De Blasis.

Photo: Claudia Plens - MAE

Fluvial Sambaqui - So Paulo Dark horizon in the shell mounds - SantaCatarina

TERRA PRETA DE NDIO

Latossolo Amarelo - Manaus

TPI prxima ao Rio Preto da Eva

TPI proxima ao rio Urubu

Terra Preta de ndio in the fertile floodplains

Costa do Marreco - Manacapuru

profile in antropic horizons Probably P leaching (AB / BA arethe richest ones)

P change from P-Ca / P-Fe and FAl Iron is reduced (Total analyses) How old are TPI profiles ?

CHARCOAL - BIOCHAR

Adding biochar to the soil - for what ?- to stock carbon in a recalcitrant form

- to create charges (CEC / AEC) ?- to create soil fertility ? - as source of carbon to microorganism ? - to improve water holding capacity ?

- to create habitat to microorganisms ?

to improve fertilizers efficiencyto reduce pesticides effects

to improve yields

Investigating Antropic soil horizons Dealing with high soil variability in small scalehorizontaly vertically

Classical statistical approach Geostatistical approach

Different sources of nutrients enhanced variabilityVegetal residues Trunks, bunches, leaves (palm leaves) Pa system Charcoal and ashes

Animal residuesBones, fish bones, blood and skins

ManureOthers sources - human bodies

- feaces and urine- mineral sources (clay material for ceramic , rock (lithic artifacts),Fonte: Lima H.

Fonte: Woods W.

Investigating Antropic soil horizons Dealing with high soil variability in small scalehorizontaly vertically

Classical statistical approach Geostatistical approach

Charcoal - Biochar What is it ? Agronomical effects ? 15 years of field investigation in the Central Amazon - Zech, Glaser, Lehmann, Steiner, Teixeira, Arruda, Falco

TERRA PRETA MEETING - 2002

Charcoal composition

Ash composition Physical properties changed by using charcoal applications - Dispersed clay - Enhance soil water retention - Enhance specific soil surface - Agregation and habitat for soil biota

Which caracteristics of TPI we want o mimic in our new TP sites ? Soil fertility ? Soil resilience ? Soil carbon stocks ?

What is the definition of soil fertility ?

Soil fertility in the tropics

Not only add fertilizers (mineral or organic) but also to enhance the soil capacity to hold them Enhance Cation Exchange Capacity K+, Na+, Ca++, Mg++, Anion Exchange Capacity SO4--, HPO4-, NO3-

The Panema HypothesisTPI Cultural artefact (not intentionally done for agriculture) but it was done not create by human living

The Project Caldeiro modeling the formation and evolution of Amazonian Dark Earths MP 2 Projeto 02.09.01.014.00.00 - As Terras Pretas de ndio da Amaznia: o entendimento de sua formao e evoluo. I

The Caldeiro Research Station TPI site

Small anfitheather

Floodplains

Fonte: Teixeira

Solimes river

How to Modeling dynamic and complexes processes as TPI formation and evolution ? Multidiscisplanary data How to integrate those data in a model to fit a complex process like TPI formation and evolution

One possibility is to use

General systems theory

The receipt will depend of taste of the gasts Our gasts are plant roots Rice, Cacao - likes soups Guarana - Papaia - doesnt like soups Charcoal is a not the main course

The main course will be nutrients

Not so many salt not so much only the necessary !

Genereal systems theory - approach

Thank you for your attention

Wenceslau Teixeira Embrapa Solos E-mail: wenceslau@cnps.embrapa.br Tel: 55 (21) 21794583