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Name: _____________________________________ Period: ____________
Training Activity #2: Space Notes on Astronomy
Astronomy is the study of all physical subjects _____________________________________ Earth.
Light-year: a unit of length equal to the distance that light travels through space in 1 year.
· The speed of light is approximately 300,000 kilometers per second (about 186,000 miles per second)
· Ptolemy – believed the Earth was at the ___________________________________ of the universe.
· Copernicus – the __________________________ is at the center of the universe.
· Galileo Galilei: first to use a _______________________________ to observe celestial bodies.
· Isaac Newton: explained that _______________________________ is the force that keeps planets orbiting the sun and moons orbiting planets.
Constellations are sections of the sky that contain recognizable star _____________________________.
· Different _________________________________ named the constellations after their gods or objects in their daily lives.
· The constellations change from season to season because of Earth’s revolution.
A telescope is an instrument that collects electromagnetic radiation from the sky and _______________ it for better observation.
· Refracting: a curved objective __________________________ bends light and focuses the light to be magnified by the eyepiece.
· Reflecting: light enters the telescope and is reflected from a large, curved _______________ to a focal point above the mirror.
· Hubble Space Telescope: an optical telescope that is in _____________________________.
· Provided clearer images in space than any ground based telescope.
· Chandra X-ray telescope is the most powerful X-ray telescope ever built.
· Launched in 1999.
Our Place in the Universe
· The Universe - 93 billion light years in _____________________________________
· The Milky Way Galaxy - 100,000 light years in diameter
· Our Solar System - the Sun's gravity extends out to around 2 light years. So it is about 4 light years in diameter.
· Earth – 3rd planet to our Sun
Study Jams Universe Video
Quiz Score: ______________________________
Inner Planets – all terrestrial (have land)
· Mercury- terrestrial
· Closest to the Sun
· Can be as hot as 427° C
· Its year is only ____________________________ Earth days long!
· Venus – terrestrial
· About the same size, mass, and density as ______________________________.
· Rotates in the opposite direction than Earth.
· It's day (243 Earth days) is longer than it's year (about 225 Earth days).
· Hottest planet: Averages 464 ° C because there is so much greenhouse gas.
· Earth – terrestrial
· Just the right distance from the _________________.
· Allowed water to develop which is the key to life.
· Mars – terrestrial
· The ____________________________ Planet
· Cold planet, ______________________ atmosphere, very low pressure
· There is ice found on Mars.
Study Jams Inner Planets Slide Show
Quiz Score: __________________________
Outer Planets – all gas giants
· Jupiter- gaseous
· __________________________ planet. Has the Great Red Spot (a spinning storm)
· Made of primarily hydrogen and helium.
· Takes almost 12 years to revolve!
· Saturn- gaseous
· Second largest planet
· Similar composition to Jupiter.
· Rings are made of ________________________ particles.
· Uranus- gaseous
· Bluish-green color.
· Made of mostly hydrogen and methane.
· Very dense and it’s axis is tilted almost ______________________ ° !
· Neptune- gaseous
· ____________________________ color
· Temperature is -225 °C
· The atmosphere has belts of clouds
· Pluto – like a terrestrial planet
· ____________________________ from the Sun. Has a moon called Charon
· Now considered a ______________________ planet because it is more like an asteroid.
· Half the size of Mercury
· Made of rock and ice. Atmosphere is mostly methane.
Study Jams Outer Planets Slide Show
Quiz Score: _______________________________
Comet: a small body of ______________________, rock and cosmic dust loosely packed together.
· “Dirty ______________________________”
· Comet tails: gas and dust that the comet gives off when solar radiation heats it.
· They orbit in an elliptical shape.
· Scientists believe comets come from outside our solar system (Oort Cloud).
Asteroids are large rocky bodies in ___________________________ around the sun.
· Irregularly shaped.
· Most orbit in a region between Mars and Jupiter called the asteroid ______________________.
· A meteoroid is a ___________________________, rocky body orbiting the sun.
· They are smaller than an asteroid.
· A meteorite is when a meteoroid enters the Earth’s atmosphere and strikes the ground.
· A meteor is the bright streak of light caused by a meteoroid or comet dust burning up in the atmosphere.
A star is a hot, brilliant ball of __________________________.
· Stars go through a life cycle.
· Absolute magnitude is the actual _______________________________________ of a star.
· The H-R (Hertzsprung-Russell) diagram is a graph showing the relationship between a star’s surface temperature and it’s absolute magnitude.
· Our sun is an average star (dwarf star).
Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) Diagram
· Our sun is an _____________________________ star (dwarf star).
· The energy from the sun is produced by fusion.
· Sun spot- cool, dark spots on the sun
· Solar flare- giant storm on the surface of the sun.
· Can affect _______________________
· Supernovas: ___________________________ of a large star by explosion.
· Produces silver, gold, and lead.
· Neutron Stars: a star formed from the left over materials a _____________________________.
· Extremely dense.
· Particles inside the star become ____________________________.
· Pulsars: a __________________________________ neutron star.
· Black Holes: an object that is so ___________________________ (in other words, has enough mass in a small enough volume) that its gravity is strong enough to prevent light or anything else from escaping.
· Astronomers theorized that these are created after a supernova and when the universe began.
A Stars’ Life Cycle Video:
What are stars made of (it is the fuel for the star)? ____________________________________________
What does a star’s life cycle depend on? Circle one: It’s size or Where it’s born
What will our sun turn into after it runs out of fuel? ___________________________________________
A galaxy is a large ______________________________ of stars in space (1 million to 1 trillion stars)
· ____________________________- bulge at the center and spiral
· Most galaxies are this type.
· The Milky Way is thought to be this type
· Elliptical- bright centers and very little dust and gas.
· Contain only _______________________ stars.
· No definite shape
The Big Bang Theory:
The scientific theory, discovered by _______________________________ _______________________, that the Universe was born from a single point in a violent explosion and has been expanding ever since.
What is 1 thing you learned from the Big Bang Theory video? __________________________________