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Name: _____________________________________ Period: ____________

Training Activity #2: Space Notes on Astronomy

Astronomy is the study of all physical subjects _____________________________________ Earth.

Light-year: a unit of length equal to the distance that light travels through space in 1 year.

· The speed of light is approximately 300,000 kilometers per second (about 186,000 miles per second)


· Ptolemy – believed the Earth was at the ___________________________________ of the universe.

· Copernicus – the __________________________ is at the center of the universe.

· Galileo Galilei: first to use a _______________________________ to observe celestial bodies.

· Isaac Newton: explained that _______________________________ is the force that keeps planets orbiting the sun and moons orbiting planets.

Constellations are sections of the sky that contain recognizable star _____________________________.

· Different _________________________________ named the constellations after their gods or objects in their daily lives.

· The constellations change from season to season because of Earth’s revolution.


A telescope is an instrument that collects electromagnetic radiation from the sky and _______________ it for better observation.

· Types

· Refracting: a curved objective __________________________ bends light and focuses the light to be magnified by the eyepiece.

· Reflecting: light enters the telescope and is reflected from a large, curved _______________ to a focal point above the mirror.

· Hubble Space Telescope: an optical telescope that is in _____________________________.

· Provided clearer images in space than any ground based telescope.

· Chandra X-ray telescope is the most powerful X-ray telescope ever built.

· Launched in 1999.

Our Place in the Universe

· The Universe - 93 billion light years in _____________________________________

· The Milky Way Galaxy - 100,000 light years in diameter

· Our Solar System - the Sun's gravity extends out to around 2 light years. So it is about 4 light years in diameter.

· Earth – 3rd planet to our Sun

Study Jams Universe Video

Quiz Score: ______________________________

Inner Planets – all terrestrial (have land)

· Mercury- terrestrial

· Closest to the Sun

· Can be as hot as 427° C

· Its year is only ____________________________ Earth days long!

· Venus – terrestrial

· About the same size, mass, and density as ______________________________.

· Rotates in the opposite direction than Earth.

· It's day (243 Earth days) is longer than it's year (about 225 Earth days).

· Hottest planet: Averages 464 ° C because there is so much greenhouse gas.

· Earth – terrestrial

· Just the right distance from the _________________.

· Allowed water to develop which is the key to life.

· Mars – terrestrial

· The ____________________________ Planet

· Cold planet, ______________________ atmosphere, very low pressure

· There is ice found on Mars.

Study Jams Inner Planets Slide Show

Quiz Score: __________________________

Outer Planets – all gas giants

· Jupiter- gaseous

· __________________________ planet. Has the Great Red Spot (a spinning storm)

· Made of primarily hydrogen and helium.

· Takes almost 12 years to revolve!

· Saturn- gaseous

· Second largest planet

· Similar composition to Jupiter.

· Rings are made of ________________________ particles.

· Uranus- gaseous

· Bluish-green color.

· Made of mostly hydrogen and methane.

· Very dense and it’s axis is tilted almost ______________________ ° !

· Neptune- gaseous

· ____________________________ color

· Temperature is -225 °C

· The atmosphere has belts of clouds

· Pluto – like a terrestrial planet

· ____________________________ from the Sun. Has a moon called Charon

· Now considered a ______________________ planet because it is more like an asteroid.

· Half the size of Mercury

· Made of rock and ice. Atmosphere is mostly methane.

Study Jams Outer Planets Slide Show

Quiz Score: _______________________________

Comet: a small body of ______________________, rock and cosmic dust loosely packed together.

· “Dirty ______________________________”

· Comet tails: gas and dust that the comet gives off when solar radiation heats it.

· They orbit in an elliptical shape.

· Scientists believe comets come from outside our solar system (Oort Cloud).

Asteroids are large rocky bodies in ___________________________ around the sun.

· Irregularly shaped.

· Most orbit in a region between Mars and Jupiter called the asteroid ______________________.


· A meteoroid is a ___________________________, rocky body orbiting the sun.

· They are smaller than an asteroid.

· A meteorite is when a meteoroid enters the Earth’s atmosphere and strikes the ground.

· A meteor is the bright streak of light caused by a meteoroid or comet dust burning up in the atmosphere.

A star is a hot, brilliant ball of __________________________.

· Stars go through a life cycle.

· Absolute magnitude is the actual _______________________________________ of a star.

· The H-R (Hertzsprung-Russell) diagram is a graph showing the relationship between a star’s surface temperature and it’s absolute magnitude.

· Our sun is an average star (dwarf star).

Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) Diagram

The Sun

· Our sun is an _____________________________ star (dwarf star).

· The energy from the sun is produced by fusion.

· Sun spot- cool, dark spots on the sun

· Solar flare- giant storm on the surface of the sun.

· Can affect _______________________

Old Stars

· Supernovas: ___________________________ of a large star by explosion.

· Produces silver, gold, and lead.

· Neutron Stars: a star formed from the left over materials a _____________________________.

· Extremely dense.

· Particles inside the star become ____________________________.

· Pulsars: a __________________________________ neutron star.

· Black Holes: an object that is so ___________________________ (in other words, has enough mass in a small enough volume) that its gravity is strong enough to prevent light or anything else from escaping.

· Astronomers theorized that these are created after a supernova and when the universe began.

A Stars’ Life Cycle Video:

What are stars made of (it is the fuel for the star)? ____________________________________________

What does a star’s life cycle depend on? Circle one: It’s size or Where it’s born

What will our sun turn into after it runs out of fuel? ___________________________________________


A galaxy is a large ______________________________ of stars in space (1 million to 1 trillion stars)

· Types:

· ____________________________- bulge at the center and spiral

· Most galaxies are this type.

· The Milky Way is thought to be this type

· Elliptical- bright centers and very little dust and gas.

· Contain only _______________________ stars.

· Irregular

· No definite shape

The Big Bang Theory:

The scientific theory, discovered by _______________________________ _______________________, that the Universe was born from a single point in a violent explosion and has been expanding ever since.

What is 1 thing you learned from the Big Bang Theory video? __________________________________