VIMLESH Project REPORT

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Transcript of VIMLESH Project REPORT

  • 1

    A PROJECT REPORT

    ON

    WATER QUALITY MAPPING BY USING GIS IN GORAKHPUR

    CITY (U.P.)

    For the Degree of Bachelor of Technology in Civil Engineering

    SUBMITTED BY:

    VIMLESH KUMAR VERMA (130110054)

    SAURABH KUMAR (130110040)

    KRISHNA KUMAR (130110022)

    BRIJ MOHAN SINGH (130110012)

    PAWAN KUMAR PANDAY (130110032)

    RISHABH KATIYAR (130110038)

    Head of Department: Guided By:

    Dr. S.M. Ali Jawaid Dr. R. K. Shukla

    Professor Associate Professor

    DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

    MADAN MOHAN MALAVIYA UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY

    GORAKHPUR (U.P.) INDIA

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    ACKNOWLEGEDMENT

    It gives us immense pleasure to present the report of the Final year

    Project being undertaken by our group. We would like to thank our Project

    Mentor, Associate Professor Dr. R.K. Shukla, Department of Civil Engineering,

    Madan Mohan Malaviya University of Technology, Gorakhpur for his constant

    support and guidance throughout the course of our work. His sincerity,

    thoroughness and perseverance have been a constant source of inspiration for

    us. It is only his cognizant efforts that our endeavors have seen light of the day.

    We also take this opportunity to acknowledge the contribution of Prof. S.M. Ali

    Jawaid, Head of Department of Civil Engineering,Madan Mohan Malaviya

    University of Technology Gorakhpur for his full support and assistance during

    the development of the project.

    VIMLESH KUMAR VERMA (130110054)

    SAURABH KUMAR (130110040)

    KRISHNA KUMAR (130110022)

    BRIJ MOHAN SINGH (130110012)

    PAWAN KUMAR PANDAY (130110032)

    RISHABH KATIYAR (130110038)

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    CONTENT

    SR.

    NO.

    TOPIC PAGE NO.

    1 INTRODUCTION 4

    2 NECESSITY OF WATER QUALITY MAPPING 5

    3 OBJECTIVES OF THE PROJECT 5

    4 WATER QUALITY CHARACTERTICS

    4.1 PHYSICAL CHARACTERSTICS

    4.2 CHEMICAL CHARACTERSTICS

    4.3 BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERSTICS

    5

    5 CHEMICAL CHARACTERSTICS

    5.1 TOTAL DISSOLVED SOLIDS

    5.2 pH

    5.3 ALKALINITY

    5.4 HARDNESS

    5.5 CHLORIDE CONTENT

    6 -7

    6 CODAL PROVISION FOR PARAMETERS 7-8

    7 TESTING AND DATA COLLECTION

    7.1 STUDY AREA

    7.2 PROCEDURE FOR TESTING

    7.3 COLLECTION OF GROUND WATER SAMPLES

    8-11

    8 WATER QUALITY MAPPING BY USING QGIS 12

    9 DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 13

    10 WATER QUALITY CLASSIFICATION BASED ON WQI 14

    11 CONCLUSION 14

    12 REFERENCES 14

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    1. INTRODUCTION

    Ground water is an essential and vital component of our life support system. Water is not

    only one of the most essential commodities of our day-to-day life, but the development of this

    natural resource also plays a crucial role in economic and social development processes.

    Thus, the availability of surface and ground water governs the process of planning &

    development. The surface water resources are inadequate to fulfill the water demand.

    Productivity through groundwater is quite high as compared to surface water, but

    groundwater resources have not yet been properly developed through exploration. Keeping

    this in view, the present study attempts to select suitable locations for groundwater areas

    using an integrated approach of GIS (Geographic Information System). These locations were

    entered into GIS as point coverage through digitization and transformed into geographical

    coordinate systems. These points were used as input in interpolation process. Each point

    location was assigned a unique code in their feature attribute table. The ground water as well

    soil and corresponding chemical data (pH, chloride concentration and alkalinity) for each

    point is entered as separate database. This associated information is linked to the

    corresponding point data through a common field (sampling code) for the approximation.

    Quantum GIS software with spatial extension module was used for interpolation.

    Inconsistency and unequal availability of surface water leads to the search for ground water.

    Ground water is profoundly utilized in irrigation, industries and for domestic purposes.

    Therefore, the quality of ground water is equally important as its quantity. The present study

    makes use of geo-spatial technology in mapping the spatial variability of ground water

    quality. Ground water samples were collected from 30 point sources randomly distributed in

    Gorakhpur, U.P . The major water quality parameters such as pH, Alkalinity, Total Dissolved

    Solids, Total hardness, Chloride, have been estimated for all the sampling locations. The

    spatial variation maps of these ground water quality parameters were generated. The final

    map shows the different classes of ground water quality within the district. Growth of

    population, rapid urbanization and increasing uses in domestic and agricultural sectors

    necessitate the demand for good quality of water supply. One of the most vital natural

    resources and easily accessible source of fresh water is ground water. Therefore, finding the

    potential areas, monitoring and conserving ground water have become extremely important at

    the present moment. One of the most vital natural resources and easily accessible source of

    fresh water is ground water. Therefore, finding the potential areas, monitoring and conserving

    ground water have become extremely important at the present moment.

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    2. NECESSITY OF WATER QUALITY MAPPING

    The health concerns associated with drinking polluted water make water quality a primary

    concern. This project explores how maps can support water quality management as part of a

    common project between water management organizations. It is helpful in knowing the

    current state of water quality and its evolution is necessary in determining policies for the

    improvement of quality, uses, and supervision of the testing process.

    3. OBJECTIVES OF THE PROJECT

    1) To study the variation of ground water quality in Gorakhpur city.

    2) To integrate the water quality data with the spatial database.

    3) To develop an interactive water quality map.

    4) To assess the suitability of ground water for drinking purposes.

    4. WATER QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS

    The standard IS: 10500-2012 prescribes the requirements for the essential and desirable

    characteristics required to be tested for ascertaining the suitability of water for drinking

    purpose. It includes-

    Physical properties of water quality include suspended solids, temperature, taste and odour,

    color and turbidity.

    Chemical characteristics involve parameters such as pH, total dissolved solids, alkalinity,

    total hardness and chloride concentration.

    Bacteriological characteristics- most probable number of coliform bacteria i.e. MPN value

  • 6

    5. CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS

    5.1 TOTAL DISSOLVED SOLIDS (TDS)

    Material remaining in water after filtration for the suspended solids analysis is

    considered to be dissolved.

    Dissolved substances may be organic or inorganic in nature.

    Inorganic substances which may be dissolved in water may include minerals, metals

    and gases.

    Organic dissolved constituents of water results from decay products of vegetation,

    from organic chemicals and from organic gases.

    Many dissolved solids are undesirable because they may produce aesthetically

    displeasing color, taste and odour or may be toxic or carcinogenic.

    Some dissolved substances are desirable in water because distilled water has a flat

    test. Total dissolved solids can be measured by evaporating to dryness a sample of

    water which has been filtered to remove the suspended solids and expressed in

    mg/L.

    Certain amount of TDS is essential for our body .For eg : Zinc is necessary for

    calcium to work in our body through drinking water.

    But if TDS is present in excess amount it causes Gaestro-Intestinal Irritation.

    5.2 pH

    The pH value of water indicates the logarithm of reciprocal of hydrogen ion

    concentration present in water.

    It is thus in indicator of the acidity or the alkalinity of water.

    Since the pH is the log of reciprocal of H+ , the higher value of pH means lower

    hydrogen ion concentration and thus represent alkaline solution whereas the lower

    value of pH means higher hydrogen ion concentration representing acidic solution.

    The pH value of water can be measured quickly and automatically with the help of

    a potentiometer which measures the electrical potential exerted by hydrogen ions

    and thus indicating their concentration.

    It can also be measured with the help of colour indicators which are added to the

    water and the colour produced is compared with the standard colours of known pH

    values.

    It has a very strong influence on water treatment.

    Certain microorganisms survive in certain pH range but die in other,hence the

    existence of microorganisms is influenced by pH.

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    5.3 AL