Unit Title: Transactive Writing: How To Web view 26/06/2008  · If you have trouble...

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Unit Title: Transactive Writing: How To Paragraph

Transactive Writing: How-To - Differentiated Unit

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Creator: Noraa Ransey______________

Content/ Subject: __Writing__________

Grade Level: Second Grade_________ _

Unit/ Theme: __Transactive Writing____

Unit Focus: Writing a How-To Paragraph

Unit Overview:

This unit covers the essential steps of the writing process for creating a transactive how-to writing piece. This type of paragraph explains the steps in a process to completing a task. A crucial component is the ordering of events, generally done sequentially.  Writers should start with the materials needed to accomplish their task and use order words to sequentially explain the steps.

Unit Questions:

1. What is a How-To piece?

2. How would a lack of sequencing effect a How-To piece?

3. What techniques can writers use to make a How-To piece interesting and exciting?

4. Why is precise language important?

Students will Know:

Students will Do:

· How-To pieces use the lead to attract the reader’s attention; let him know what the piece will be describing and why the audience needs to know the procedure.

· A How-To piece is written for a particular audience and gives directions.

· How-To pieces contain key components; materials list, step-by-step directions, catchy title, hook, and conclusion.

· Communicate a purpose through informing by use of a How-To piece.

· Write an effective lead to attract the readers attention

· Make the list for the How-To paper.

· Write step-by-step procedures including helpful hints, amount of time needed, warnings, why, and why-nots.

· Revise the steps and check for

· Focus

· Transitions

· Audience needs

· Development and organization

· Helpful hints

· Write a closing in a conversational tone.

· Use complete and correct sentences where necessary.

· Use precise and descriptive language

· Use correct capitalization, punctuation, and spelling.

· Use pre-writing strategies to generate ideas and develop focus.

· Reflect on own writing

· Confer with others to analyze own work and work of others and make revisions.

· Publish for intended audience in neat, legible form.

· Use a variety of transition words or phrases

· Apply correct grammar skills

· Create rough daft

· Edit for language usage, sentence structure, spelling, capitalization, and punctuation


· Published piece

· Graphic organizers

Instructional Strategies:

small group, large group, shared writing, journals, mini-lessons, writing center, peer conferencing, Authors as Mentors, Authors chair, making books (publishing), word wall, inventive spelling, technology


How-To Topics:

How to count money…

How to add two digits numbers…

How to eat an Oreo… (give Oreo cookies to try)

How to brush your teeth…

How to make your favorite sandwich…

How to make your bed …

How to get ready for school …

How to make an ice cream sundae …

How to draw a rainbow…

How to sharpen your pencil…

How to grow a plant…

How to make a pine cone bird feeder…

How to wash your hands…

How to study for a test…

How to sharpen a pencil…

How to locate a city on a map…

How to get someplace…

How to make a snowman…

How to make an edible Christmas tree…

How to make popcorn garland…

  Make a craft and tell how to do it…

Topic Sentence Ideas:

It is _____ to make a…

I know how to make a…

Wouldn’t you like to learn how to…

I’d like to teach you about…

Making _____ can be…

Hook Ideas:

Build with us!!!

Cooking is a blast!

Let’s learn how to…

Order words include but are not limited to:

about             after                   at                  before            during                first               second          third                  until               then               meanwhile       next               soon              later                   when            

finally         as soon as   



Purpose/Audience: Students will establish and maintain a focused purpose to communicate with an authentic audience by

· Narrowing the topic to present an idea or theme

· Choosing a perspective authentic to the writer

· Analyzing and addressing the needs of the intended audience

· Adhering to the characteristics of the form

· Applying a suitable tone

· Allowing voice to emerge when appropriate



Idea Development/Support: Students will support main ideas and deepen the audience’s understanding of purpose by

· Developing logical, justified, and suitable explanations

· Providing relevant elaboration

· Explaining related connections or reflections

· Applying idea development strategies appropriate for the form



In Transactive Writing,

· Students will communicate relevant information

· Students will develop an angle with support (e.g., facts, examples, reasons, visuals)

· Students will apply research to support ideas with facts and opinions



Organization: Students will create unity and coherence to accomplish the focused purpose by

· Engaging the audience

· Establishing a context for reading when appropriate

· Communicating ideas and support in a meaningful order

· Applying transitions and transitional elements to guide the reader through the piece

· Developing effective closure



In Transactive Writing,

· Students will establish a context for reading

· Students will apply the accepted format of the genre

· Students will develop text structure (e.g., problem/ solution, question/answer, description, sequence)

· Students will arrange ideas in a logical, meaningful order by using transitions or transitional elements between ideas and details

· Students will incorporate text features (e.g., subheadings, bullets, fonts, white space, layout, charts, diagrams, labels, pictures, captions) when appropriate

· Students will create conclusions effectively


In Transactive Writing,

· Students will develop complete sentences or apply unconventional structures when appropriate


In Transactive Writing,

· Students will adhere to standard guidelines for grammar and usage

· Students will use precise word choice

· Students will use the specialized vocabulary of the discipline/content appropriate to the purpose and audience



Inviting the Writing

· Connecting to content knowledge

· Connecting to prior learning

· Initiating authentic connection

· Thinking about a topic



· Selecting/narrowing a topic

· Establishing a purpose and central/controlling idea or focus

· Identifying and analyzing the audience

· Determining the most appropriate form to meet the needs of purpose and audience

· Generating ideas (e.g., reading, journaling, mapping, webbing, note taking, interviewing, researching, other writing-to-learn activities)

· Organizing ideas- consider other models of good writing, appropriate text structures to match purpose, various ways to organize information, etc.



· Writing draft(s) for an intended audience

· Developing topic, elaborating, exploring sentence variety and language




· Reflecting to determine where to add, delete, rearrange, define/redefine, or elaborate content

· Conferencing with teacher or peer(s) to help determine where to add, delete, rearrange, define/redefine, or elaborate content

· Checking for accuracy of content

· Considering voice, tone, style, intended audience, coherence, transitions

· Comparing with rubric criteria and benchmark papers/models

· Considering effectiveness of language usage and sentences to communicate ideas

Revising Skills


Idea Development

WR-EP-4.10.04- Students will identify the topic sentence/main idea of a paragraph