Unit 7: Cells and Cell Structure and Function Notes Cell Structure Sketch Prokaryotic, Eukaryotic...

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Transcript of Unit 7: Cells and Cell Structure and Function Notes Cell Structure Sketch Prokaryotic, Eukaryotic...

  • 1

    Unit 7: Cells and Life

    Name: _________________________________

    Period: __________

    Test Date: _______________________

  • 2

    Table of Contents

    Title of Page Page Number

    Due Date

    VIRUS vs CELLS CHECKLIST 3

    Warm-ups 4-5

    Virus Notes 6-7

    Viral Reproduction Notes 8

    Viruses VS Cells Notes 9-10

    Cell Structure and Function Notes 11-13

    Comparing Euk, Pro, and Viruses 14

    Cell Match up 16

    Cell Poster Activity 17-18

    Endosymbiosis Notes 19-20

    Cell Scenarios Activity 21-22

    Cell and Factory Worksheet 23-24

    Unit 7 Vocabulary 25-26

  • 3

    Virus vs. Cells Check List

    Viruses

    Prokaryote

    Eukaryote Living

    Cell

    Evolve over time

    Contains genetic material (DNA/ RNA)

    All store genetic information in the form of DNA

    Can reproduce independently

    Requires host for reproduction

    Phospholipid Bilayer

    Nucleus

    Ribosomes

    Membrane bound organelles

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    UNIT 7 WARM-UPS

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    Question: Answer:

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  • 6

    Virus Notes

    What is a Virus?

     _______-living particle

     WHY? Viruses are considered to be non-living because they do NOT:

    o Carry out _____________________

    o ___________ or develop

    o ____________________ without the help of a living cell (host)

    Characteristics of Viruses

     Only pathogenic (causes _________________)

     Viruses are ____________________ to certain kinds of cells

    o Ex. HIV infects only Helper T cells

     Before a virus can replicate, it must ___________________ to and infect a living cell, called the

    ______________ cell.

    Virus Structure

     A virus has simple structure consisting of an inner core of genetic material (_______ or RNA)

    and an outer _______________ layer called a capsid.

     This structure is known as a __________________.

     The two parts of a virus are:

    o __________________________________ – DNA & RNA – nucleic acids which play a

    fundamental role in determining the structure and nature of all living things

    o _________________ - protein shell that surrounds a virus

     Label the capsid and genetic material in the following viruses

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    Gylcoproteins – Projections on ouside of viruses to gain ________________ to interior of

    ___________________.

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    Viral Replication Notes Viruses

     If viruses are non-living, how do they replicate??  They need a ____________ cell!  Before a virus can replicate, it must attach to and infect a _______________ _______.

     What kinds of cells?  A virus is _____________ to a specific kind of cell.

    Viral Attachment  Viruses are specific to certain host cells.

     They will only attach to a cell if the protein (______________________) in its capsid or envelope matches the host cell’s protein.

     Like an enzyme (___________ and key).  If a virus can’t __________________, it can’t infect the cell.

    What happens after attachment?  Once a suitable host is found, the virus attaches and injects its _________ into the host.  The host cell drives the production of new virus particles.  The virus uses its host cell’s ________________ to make more copies of itself.

    Viral Replication  Once in a host, the virus can take one of two paths.

    Two Types of Viral Life Cycles

     Lytic cycle  The rapid reproduction of the entire virus carried out by the host eventually

    ______________________ the host cell.  Remember, when in the lytic cycle the virus is ________________ off so it destroys the

    cell.  LySogenic cycle - ______________ cycle

     The viral DNA is integrated into a host and is replicated _______________ destroying the cell.

     Eventually, the virus exists the lysogenic cycle and enters the _____________ cycle.  Each time the cell divides, the provirus also divides.  Each generation results in ___________ infected host cells.  Does not destroy host cell _____________ provirus enters the lytic cycle.

    2.___________________

    Cycle 1.___________________

    Cycle

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    Viruses vs. Cells

    Characteristics of cells - All cells contain…

     _______ membrane

    o Regulates what goes in and out of the cell (selective)

    o Composed of ____________ and proteins

     Cytoplasm

    o _____________-like substance found on the inside of the cell

    o Enclosed by cellular membrane

     Ribosomes

    o Site of _________________ production

    o Located in cytoplasm

     Genetic material (_______)

    Two Basic Cell Types

    All cells are either _______________________ or eukaryotic

    What is the difference? The location of their ______

     _______karyote = no nucleus present; DNA is in the cytoplasm

     Eukaryote = nucleus present; DNA surrounded by _______________

    Prokaryotes a.k.a. _________________

     Simplest cellular organisms

     _______cellular

     Contain genetic material but no nucleus

     ______ membrane bound organelles – therefore, not many specialized functions.

    Eukaryotes

     Complex cellular organisms

     Unicellular ________ multicellular

    Cells Viruses

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     Contain a _____________ and many membrane-bound organelles with specialized

    functions.

    Nucleus

     Controls activities of the cell and holds the genetic information (DNA)

     Only found in _____________________

     Ribosomes, which are used in protein synthesis, are assembled in an area of the nucleus called

    the nucleolus.

    Viruses Cells

     DNA _______ RNA.  Have no ________________ of their own.  Must be parasitic!

     DNA  Can metabolize “food” to produce

    _____________.  Can live on their own and

    ______________ through binary fission.

  • 11

    Cell Structure and Function Notes

    Cell Structure

    Sketch Prokaryotic, Eukaryotic

    Function What to

    Remember

    Nucleus

    Controls activities of the cell and holds the genetic information

    (DNA). The nucleus is

    surrounded by the nuclear membrane (also referred to as

    the nuclear envelope).

    DNA

    Genetic material made up of

    genes that are decoded to make proteins (traits).

    Nucleolus

    Located within the nucleus of

    eukaryotic cells and is the location of ribosome assembly.

    Plasma or Cell Membrane

    Selectively regulates what enters and exits the cell.

    Cytoplasm

    A jelly-like substance found

    outside of the nucleus and enclosed by cellular membrane.

    Ribosomes

    Located in the cytoplasm and on the rough ER and are the site of

    protein production.

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    Rough Endoplasmic

    Reticulum (ER)

    Transports proteins that are

    made by ribosomes attached to

    it.

    Smooth Endoplasmic

    Reticulum (ER)

    Makes new lipids and helps to break down toxic substances.

    Golgi Apparatus/Bo

    dy

    A series of flattened, membrane-

    bound sacs that serve as the

    packaging and distribution center

    of the cell to modify the proteins that travel from the ER before

    they are released to serve their function.

    Mitochondria

    Release energy from organic

    compounds to make ATP (cellular

    respiration).

    Lysosomes

    Specialized vesicles that contain digestive enzymes and function

    to digest and recycle the cell’s used components.

    Cytoskeleton

    A network of protein structures

    that determines cell shape and provides support for organelles

    and pathways for cell movement.

  • 13

    Cell Wall

    Helps to support, protect and

    maintain the shape of the cell.

    Chloroplasts

    Use light energy to make

    carbohydrates from carbon

    dioxide and water (photosynthesis) and are only

    found in plant cells.

    Large, central vacuole