Unit 7: Cells and Cell Structure and Function Notes Cell Structure Sketch Prokaryotic, Eukaryotic...
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Unit 7: Cells and Life
Test Date: _______________________
Table of Contents
Title of Page Page Number
VIRUS vs CELLS CHECKLIST 3
Virus Notes 6-7
Viral Reproduction Notes 8
Viruses VS Cells Notes 9-10
Cell Structure and Function Notes 11-13
Comparing Euk, Pro, and Viruses 14
Cell Match up 16
Cell Poster Activity 17-18
Endosymbiosis Notes 19-20
Cell Scenarios Activity 21-22
Cell and Factory Worksheet 23-24
Unit 7 Vocabulary 25-26
Virus vs. Cells Check List
Evolve over time
Contains genetic material (DNA/ RNA)
All store genetic information in the form of DNA
Can reproduce independently
Requires host for reproduction
Membrane bound organelles
UNIT 7 WARM-UPS
What is a Virus?
WHY? Viruses are considered to be non-living because they do NOT:
o Carry out _____________________
o ___________ or develop
o ____________________ without the help of a living cell (host)
Characteristics of Viruses
Only pathogenic (causes _________________)
Viruses are ____________________ to certain kinds of cells
o Ex. HIV infects only Helper T cells
Before a virus can replicate, it must ___________________ to and infect a living cell, called the
A virus has simple structure consisting of an inner core of genetic material (_______ or RNA)
and an outer _______________ layer called a capsid.
This structure is known as a __________________.
The two parts of a virus are:
o __________________________________ – DNA & RNA – nucleic acids which play a
fundamental role in determining the structure and nature of all living things
o _________________ - protein shell that surrounds a virus
Label the capsid and genetic material in the following viruses
Gylcoproteins – Projections on ouside of viruses to gain ________________ to interior of
Viral Replication Notes Viruses
If viruses are non-living, how do they replicate?? They need a ____________ cell! Before a virus can replicate, it must attach to and infect a _______________ _______.
What kinds of cells? A virus is _____________ to a specific kind of cell.
Viral Attachment Viruses are specific to certain host cells.
They will only attach to a cell if the protein (______________________) in its capsid or envelope matches the host cell’s protein.
Like an enzyme (___________ and key). If a virus can’t __________________, it can’t infect the cell.
What happens after attachment? Once a suitable host is found, the virus attaches and injects its _________ into the host. The host cell drives the production of new virus particles. The virus uses its host cell’s ________________ to make more copies of itself.
Viral Replication Once in a host, the virus can take one of two paths.
Two Types of Viral Life Cycles
Lytic cycle The rapid reproduction of the entire virus carried out by the host eventually
______________________ the host cell. Remember, when in the lytic cycle the virus is ________________ off so it destroys the
cell. LySogenic cycle - ______________ cycle
The viral DNA is integrated into a host and is replicated _______________ destroying the cell.
Eventually, the virus exists the lysogenic cycle and enters the _____________ cycle. Each time the cell divides, the provirus also divides. Each generation results in ___________ infected host cells. Does not destroy host cell _____________ provirus enters the lytic cycle.
Viruses vs. Cells
Characteristics of cells - All cells contain…
o Regulates what goes in and out of the cell (selective)
o Composed of ____________ and proteins
o _____________-like substance found on the inside of the cell
o Enclosed by cellular membrane
o Site of _________________ production
o Located in cytoplasm
Genetic material (_______)
Two Basic Cell Types
All cells are either _______________________ or eukaryotic
What is the difference? The location of their ______
_______karyote = no nucleus present; DNA is in the cytoplasm
Eukaryote = nucleus present; DNA surrounded by _______________
Prokaryotes a.k.a. _________________
Simplest cellular organisms
Contain genetic material but no nucleus
______ membrane bound organelles – therefore, not many specialized functions.
Complex cellular organisms
Unicellular ________ multicellular
Contain a _____________ and many membrane-bound organelles with specialized
Controls activities of the cell and holds the genetic information (DNA)
Only found in _____________________
Ribosomes, which are used in protein synthesis, are assembled in an area of the nucleus called
DNA _______ RNA. Have no ________________ of their own. Must be parasitic!
DNA Can metabolize “food” to produce
_____________. Can live on their own and
______________ through binary fission.
Cell Structure and Function Notes
Sketch Prokaryotic, Eukaryotic
Function What to
Controls activities of the cell and holds the genetic information
(DNA). The nucleus is
surrounded by the nuclear membrane (also referred to as
the nuclear envelope).
Genetic material made up of
genes that are decoded to make proteins (traits).
Located within the nucleus of
eukaryotic cells and is the location of ribosome assembly.
Plasma or Cell Membrane
Selectively regulates what enters and exits the cell.
A jelly-like substance found
outside of the nucleus and enclosed by cellular membrane.
Located in the cytoplasm and on the rough ER and are the site of
Transports proteins that are
made by ribosomes attached to
Makes new lipids and helps to break down toxic substances.
A series of flattened, membrane-
bound sacs that serve as the
packaging and distribution center
of the cell to modify the proteins that travel from the ER before
they are released to serve their function.
Release energy from organic
compounds to make ATP (cellular
Specialized vesicles that contain digestive enzymes and function
to digest and recycle the cell’s used components.
A network of protein structures
that determines cell shape and provides support for organelles
and pathways for cell movement.
Helps to support, protect and
maintain the shape of the cell.
Use light energy to make
carbohydrates from carbon
dioxide and water (photosynthesis) and are only
found in plant cells.
Large, central vacuole