U-2 Spy Incident (1960)
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U-2 Spy Incident (1960)Col. Francis Gary Powers plane was shot down over Soviet airspace.
IranPrime Minister, Mohammed Mossadegh overthown with help from CIA He had nationalized Britains Anglo-Iranian Oil CompanyReplaced with the Shah of Iran loyal to U.S. and renegotiated oil contracts so Americans got 40% of Irans oil concessions
Israel1948 Israel fights off attack by Arab neighbors Drove thousands of Palestinians from their homesOccupied territory where hundreds of thousands of Palestinians had fledSeized lands far in excess of the terms of the United Nations agreement Arab states refused to recognize Israels right to exist and put in place a boycottPalestinians in refugee camps
The Suez Crisis: 1956-1957
EgyptPresident Nasser looks to U.S. and Britain for economic aidWanted to build a dam on the Nile for electricity and irrigationNasser announced plans to nationalize the Suez Canal and turns to Soviet Union for aidEisenhower refuses to intervene and help return canal to British controlFrench, British, Israeli forces attack Egypt UN and US call for cease-fire and withdrawal of troopsAfter Soviets threaten to intervene of behalf of Egypt and troops leave
Foreign Policy Hot Spots1948 O. A. S. [Organization of American States] was created during Trumans administration.1954 CIA covert ops. in Guatemala.1950s Puerto Rican independence movement.1959 Castros Communist Revolution in Cuba.Latin America:
GuatemalaNew democracy attempted land reform & unionizationChallenged long-standing dominance of U.S. based United Fruit Company take over land they were not using to give to landless peasantsCompany lobbies Land reform = communismCIA trains antigovernment dissidents based in Honduras
GuatemalaU.S. Navy stopped ships bound for Guatemala and seized the cargosU.S. military-sponsored invasion Air Force bombing supportGuatemalan citizen seize United Fruit buildings & appeal to UNEisenhower denies knowledge of CIA activities really big black eye for U.S. as photos of victims publishedDecades long civil war ensues
IndochinaUnder French control but wants independenceU.S. fears communism Pours in $2.6 billion to aid FrenchVietminh, Ho Chi Minh, defeat the French in 1954 at Dien Bien PhuFear domino theoryGeneva Accord divides country at 17th parallel Ho Chi Minh controls north and Ngo Dihn Diem controls southDiem, former Japanese collaborator, Catholic (90% Buddhist population), corrupt and repressive policiesU.S. & UN refuse to hold elections in 1956 by 1959 South was facing civil war; guerrilla forces
Independent VietnamU.S. actions 1954-1960Covert CIA activitySupport DiemSEATO collective security agreement for Southeast Asia like NATO U.S., Britain, France, Australia, New Zealand, Thailand, Philippines, PakistanVietnam is in civil war when Kennedy takes office
Military-Industrial ComplexTotal influence economic, political, even spiritual is felt in every statehouse, every office of the federal government. The potential for disastrous rise of misplaced power exists and will persist. We must never let the weight of this combination endanger our liberties or democratic processes.
Election of 1960Nixon vs. Kennedy Just over 100,000 votes from 69 million votes cast - margin of victoryImportance of African-American vote Importance of television in electoral politicsCamelot
New Frontier LiberalismAsk not what your country can do for you, ask what you can do for your country.Funded programs to help rural AppalachiaPeace Corps
Kennedy & the Cold WarAs President, Kennedy gave more decision-making power to the White House staffAlliance for Progress like Marshall Plan for Latin AmericaIncreased agricultural productivity but effected little social change
Paris, 1961Khrushchev & JFK meet to discuss Berlin and nuclear proliferation. Khrushchev thinks that JFK is young, inexperienced, and can be rolled.
The Berlin Wall Goes Up (1961)Checkpoint Charlie
Ich bin ein Berliner! (1963)President Kennedy tells Berliners that the West is with them!
Khruschev Embraces Castro, 1961
Bay of Pigs Debacle (1961)Showed Castro had the support of the Cuban people
Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)
Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)
Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)We went eyeball-to-eyeball with the Russians, and the other man blinked!
The Missile CrisisKennedy favored peaceful coexistencehot line set up between Washington & MoscowNegotiation of the Limited Nuclear Test Ban TreatyPledge the U.S. would not invade Cuba
Assassination of JFK