The Nature of Job Analysis

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Page 1: The Nature of Job Analysis






DATE: 18-02-11


ROLL NO. 081698



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I would like to express my gratitude to Ms. S.A. Shanti for the great support throughout the assignment and for helping me to choose the organization for the job analysis.

I am thankful to her for elucidating the basic concept of the job analysis and explaining how it is practically applied in an organization and also for efficiently answering all the queries during the compilation of the assignment.

I would also like to thank my family and friends for their constant support.

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Organizations consist of positions that have to be staffed. Job analysis is the procedure through which you determine the duties of these positions and the characteristics of the people to hire for them.Job analysis produces information used for writing job descriptions (a list of what the job entails) and job specifications (what kind of people to hire for the job).

The supervisor or HR specialist normally collects one or more of the following types of information via the job analysis:

Work activities. First, he or she collects information about the job’s actual work activities, such as cleaning, selling, teaching, or painting. This list may also include how, why, and when the worker performs each activity.

Human behaviors. The specialist may also collect information about human behaviors like sensing, communicating, deciding, and writing. Included here would be information regarding job demands such as lifting weights or walking long distances.

Machines, tools, equipment, and work aids. This category includes information regarding tools used, materials processed, knowledge dealt with or applied (such as finance or law), and services rendered (such as counseling or repairing).

Performance standards. The employer may also want information about the job’s performance standards (in terms of quantity or quality levels for each job duty, for instance). Management will use these standards to appraise employees.

Job context. Included here is information about such matters as physical working conditions, work schedule, and the organizational and social context—for instance, the number of people with whom the employee would normally interact. Information regarding incentives might also be included here.

Human requirements. This includes information regarding the job’s human requirements, such as job-related knowledge or skills (education, training, work experience) and required personal attributes (aptitudes, physical characteristics, personality, interests).






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Job analysis is a purpose of collecting job related information.


T & D








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Recruitment and Selection Job analysis provides information about what the job entails and what human characteristics are required to perform these activities. This information, in the form of job descriptions and specifications, helps management decide what sort of people to recruit and hire.

Compensation Job analysis information is crucial for estimating the value of each job and its appropriate compensation. Compensation (such as salary and bonus) usually depends on the job’s required skill and education level, safety hazards, degree of responsibility, and so on—all factors you can assess through job analysis. performance with his or her performance standards. Managers use job analysis to determine the job’s specific activities and performance standards.

Training The job description should show the activities and skills—and therefore the training—that the job requires.

Discovering Unassigned Duties Job analysis can also help reveal unassigned duties. For example, your company’s production manager says she’s responsible for a dozen or so duties, such as production scheduling and raw material purchasing. Missing, however, is any reference to managing raw material inventories. On further study, you learn that none of the other manufacturing people are responsible for inventory management, either. You know from your review of other jobs like these that someone should be managing inventories. You’ve uncovered an essential unassigned duty, thanks to job analysis.


There are six steps in doing a job analysis.

Step 1 Decide how you’ll use the information, since this will determine the data you collect and how you collect them. Some data collection techniques—like interviewing the employee and asking what the job entails—are good for writing job descriptions and selecting employees for the job. Other techniques, like the position analysis questionnaire described later, do not provide qualitative information for job descriptions. Instead, they provide numerical ratings for each job; these can be used to compare jobs for compensation purposes.Step 2 Review relevant background information such as organization charts, process charts, and job descriptions. Organization charts show the organization wide division of work, how the job in question relates to other jobs, and where the job fits in the overall organization. The chart should show the title of each position and, by means of interconnecting lines, who reports to whom andwith whom the job incumbent communicates.A process chart provides a more detailed picture of the work flow. In its simplest form a process chart shows the flow of inputs to and outputs from the job you’re analyzing.

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Finally, the existing job description, if there is one, usually provides a starting point for building the revised job description.Step 3 Select representative positions. Why? Because there may be too many similarjobs to analyze. For example, it is usually unnecessary to analyze the jobs of 200 assembly workers when a sample of 10 jobs will do.Step 4 Actually analyze the job—by collecting data on job activities, required employee behaviors, working conditions, and human traits and abilities needed to perform the job. For this step, use one or more of the job analysis methods explained later in this chapter.Step 5 Verify the job analysis information with the worker performing the job and with his or her immediate supervisor. This will help confirm that the information is factually correct and complete. This review can also help gain the employee’s acceptance of the job analysis data and conclusions, by giving that person a chance to review and modify your description of the job activities.Step 6 Develop a job description and job specification. These are two tangible products of the job analysis. The job description (to repeat) is a written statement that describes the activities and responsibilities of the job, as well as its important features, such as working conditions and safety hazards. The job specification summarizes the personal qualities, traits, skills, and background required for getting the job done. It may be in a separate document or in the same document as the job description.

METHODS OF COLLECTING JOB ANALYSIS INFORMATIONConducting the job analysis usually involves a joint effort by an HR specialist, the worker, and the worker’s supervisor. The HR specialist (perhaps an HR manager, job analyst, or consultant) might observe and analyze the job and then develop a job description and specification. The supervisor and worker may fill out questionnaireslisting the subordinate’s activities. The supervisor and worker may then review and verify the job analyst’s conclusions regarding the job’s activities and duties.In practice, firms usually collect job analysis data from multiple “subject matter experts” (mostly job incumbents) using questionnaires and interviews. They then average data from several employees from different departments to determine how much time a typical employee spends on each of several specific tasks. The problem is that employees who have the same job title but work in different departments may experience very different pressures. Therefore, simply adding up and averaging the amount of time that, say, HR assistants need to devote to “interviewing candidates” could end in misleading results. The point is that you must understand the job’s departmental context: The way someone with a particular job title spends his or her time is not necessarily the same from department to department. Interviews, questionnaires, observations, and diary/logs are the most popular methods for gathering job analysis data. They all provide realistic information about what job incumbents actually do. Managers use them for developing job descriptions and job specifications.

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The InterviewManagers use three types of interviews to collect job analysis data—individual interviews with each employee, group interviews with groups of employees who have the same job, and supervisor interviews with one or more supervisors who know the job. They use group interviews when a large number of employees are performing similar or identical work, sinceit can be a quick and inexpensive way to gather information. As a rule, the workers’ immediate supervisor attends the group session; if not, you can interview the supervisor separately to get that person’s perspective on the job’s duties and responsibilities. Whichever kind of interview you use, you need to be sure the interviewee fully understands the reason for the interview, since there’s a tendency for such interviews to be viewed, rightly or wrongly, as “efficiency evaluations.” If so, interviewees may hesitate to describe their jobs accurately.

Pros and Cons The interview is probably the most widely used method for identifying a job’s duties and responsibilities, and its wide use reflects its advantages. It’s a relatively simple and quick way to collect information, including information that might never appear on a written form. A skilled interviewer can unearth important activities that occur only occasionally, or informal contacts that wouldn’t be obvious from the organization chart. The interview also provides an opportunity to explain the need for and functions of the job analysis. And the employee can vent frustrations that might otherwise go unnoticed by management. Distortion of information is the main problem—whether due to outright falsification or honest misunderstanding. Job analysis is often a prelude to changing a job’s pay rate. Employees therefore may legitimately view the interview as an efficiency evaluation that may affect their pay. They may then tend to exaggerate certain responsibilities while minimizing others. Obtaining valid information can thus be a slow process, and prudent analysts get multiple inputs.

Typical Questions Despite their drawbacks, interviews are widely used. Some typical interview questions include:What is the job being performed?What are the major duties of your position? What exactly do you do?What physical locations do you work in?What are the education, experience, skill, and [where applicable] certification and licensing requirements?In what activities do you participate?What are the job’s responsibilities and duties?What are the basic accountabilities or performance standards that typify your work?What are your responsibilities? What are the environmental and working conditions involved?What are the job’s physical demands? The emotional and mental demands?What are the health and safety conditions?Are you exposed to any hazards or unusual working conditions?

Interview Guidelines - Keep several things in mind when conducting a job analysis interview. First, the job analyst and supervisor should work together to identify the workers who know the job best—and preferably those who’ll be most objective in describing their duties and responsibilities.

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Second, quickly establish rapport with the interviewee. Know the person’s name, speak in easily understood language, briefly review the interview’s purpose, and explain how the person was chosen for the interview.Third, follow a structured guide or checklist, one that lists questions and provides space for answers. This ensures you’ll identify crucial questions ahead of time and that all interviewers (if there’s more than one) cover all the required questions. (However, also make sure to give the worker some leeway in answering questions, and provide some open-ended questions like, “Was there anything we didn’t cover with our questions?”)Fourth, when duties are not performed in a regular manner—for instance, when the worker doesn’t perform the same job over and over again many times a day—ask the worker to list his or her duties in order of importance and frequency of occurrence. This will ensure that you don’t overlook crucial but infrequently performed activities—like a nurse’s occasional emergency room duties.Finally, after completing the interview, review and verify the data. Specifically, review the information with the worker’s immediate supervisor and with the interviewee.

QuestionnairesHaving employees fill out questionnaires to describe their job-related duties and responsibilities is another good way to obtain job analysis information. You have to decide how structured the questionnaire should be and what questions to include. Some questionnaires are very structured checklists. Each employee gets an inventory of perhaps hundreds of specific duties or tasks (suchas “change and splice wire”). He or she is asked to indicate whether or not he or she performs each task and, if so, how much time is normally spent on each. At the other extreme the questionnaire can be open-ended and simply ask the employee to “describe the major duties of your job.” In practice, the best questionnaire often falls between these two extremes. A typical job analysis questionnaire might have several open-ended questions (such as “state your main job duties”) as well as structured questions (concerning, for instance, previous experience required).Whether structured or unstructured, questionnaires have both pros and cons. A questionnaire is a quick and efficient way to obtain information from a large number of employees; it’s less costly than interviewing hundreds of workers, for instance. However, developing the questionnaire and testing it (perhaps by making sure the workers understand the questions) can be expensive and time consuming.

ObservationDirect observation is especially useful when jobs consist mainly of observable physical activities—assembly-line worker and accounting clerk are examples. On the other hand, observation is usually not appropriate when the job entails a lot of mental activity (lawyer, design engineer). Nor is it useful if the employee only occasionally engages in important activities, such as a nurse who handles emergencies.And reactivity—the worker’s changing what he or she normally does because you are watching—can also be a problem.Managers often use direct observation and interviewing together. One approach is to observe the worker on the job during a complete work cycle. (The cycle is the time it takes to complete the job; it could be a minute for an assembly line worker or an hour, a day, or longer for complex jobs.) Here you take notes of all the job activities. Then, after accumulating as much information as possible, you interview the worker. Ask the person to clarify points not understood and to

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explain what other activities he or she performs that you didn’t observe. You can also observe and interview simultaneously, asking questions while the worker performs his or her job.

Participant Diary/LogsAnother approach is to ask workers to keep a diary/log of what they do during the day. For every activity he or she engages in, the employee records the activity (along with the time) in a log. This can produce a very complete picture of the job, especially when supplemented with subsequent interviews with the worker and the supervisor. The employee, of course, might try to exaggerate some activities and underplay others. However, the detailed, chronological nature of the log tends to mediate against this. Some firms take a high-tech approach to diary/logs. They give employees pocket dictating machines and pagers. Then at random times during the day, they page the workers, who dictate what they are doing at that time. This approach can avoid one pitfall of the traditional diary/log method: relying on workers to remember what they did hours earlier when they complete their logs at the end of the day.

QUANTITATIVE JOB ANALYSIS TECHNIQUESQualitative approaches like interviews and questionnaires are not always suitable. For example, if your aim is to compare jobs for pay purposes, you may want to be able to assign quantitative values to each job. The position analysis questionnaire, the Department of Labor approach, and functional job analysis are three popular quantitative methods.Position Analysis Questionnaire - The position analysis questionnaire (PAQ) is a very structured job analysis questionnaire. The PAQ contains 194 items, each of which (such as “written materials”) represents a basic element that may or may not play an important role in the job. The job analyst decides if each item plays a role and, if so, to what extent The advantage of the PAQ is that it provides a quantitative score or profile of any job in terms of how that job rates on five basic activities: (1) having decision-making/communication/social responsibilities, (2) performing skilled activities, (3) being physically active, (4) operating vehicles/equipment, and (5) processing information. The PAQ’s real strength is thus in classifying jobs. In other words, it lets you assign a quantitative score to each job based on its decision-making, skilled activity, physical activity, vehicle/equipment operation, and information-processing characteristics. You can therefore use the PAQ results to quantitatively compare jobs to one another,9 and then assign pay levels for each job.Functional Job Analysis - Functional job analysis rates the job not just on data, people, and things, but also on four more dimensions: the extent to which specific instructions are necessary to perform the task; the extent to which reasoning and judgment are required to perform the task; the mathematical ability required to perform the task; and the verbal and language facilities required to perform the task. functional job analysis also identifies performance standards andtraining requirements. It therefore lets you answer the question, “To do this task and meet these standards, what training does the worker require?”Using Multiple Sources of InformationThere are obviously many ways to obtain job analysis information. You can get it from individual workers, groups, or supervisors; or from the observations of job analysts, for instance. You can use interviews, observations, or questionnaires. Some firms use just one basic approach, like having the job analyst do interviews with current job incumbents. Yet a recent study suggests that using just one source may not be wise.

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The problem is the potential inaccuracies in people’s judgments. For example, in a group interview, some group members may feel forced to go along with the consensus of the group; or an employee may be careless about how he or she completes a questionnaire. What this means is that collecting job analysis data from just interviews, or just observations, may lead to inaccurate conclusions. It’s better to try to avoid such inaccuracies by using several sources.For example, where possible, collect job analysis data from several types of respondents—groups, individuals, observers, supervisors, and analysts; make sure the questions and surveys are clear and understandable to the respondents. And if possible, observe and question respondents early enough in the job analysis process to catch any problems while there’s still time to correct them.

WRITING JOB DESCRIPTIONSA job description is a written statement of what the worker actually does, how he or she does it, and what the job’s working conditions are. You use this information to write a job specification; this lists the knowledge, abilities, and skills required to perform the job satisfactorily.There is no standard format for writing a job description. However, most descriptions contain sections that cover:1. Job identification2. Job summary3. Responsibilities and duties4. Authority of incumbent5. Standards of performance6. Working conditions7. Job specifications

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BIG BAZAARCOMPANY PROFILE:Kishore Biyani led the company’s foray into organized retail with the opening up of the Big Bazaar in the year 2001.

It is owned by Pantaloon Retail India Ltd, Future Group and caters to the Great Indian Middle Class. It was started as a hypermarket format head quartered in Jogeshwari, Mumbai with approx. 50,000 sqft of space. Its values and missions are to be the best in Value Retailing by providing the cheapest prices and hence go the tag-line

“Is se sasta aur achcha kahin nahin”

It sells variety of merchandise at affordable rates, the prices of which it claims are lowest in the city. Usually the items are clubbed together for offers as on the lines of Wal-Mart and Carrefour, offer weekend discounts and works on the same economy model as Wal-Mart and has considerable success in many Indian cities and small towns.

It currently operates out of more than 150 stores and top 25 stores register a cumulative footfall of 30 lakh a month on an average. In Big Bazaar you will find over 170,000 products under one roof that cater to every need of family, making big Bazaar India’s favorite shopping destination.

There is always a ‘first mover advantage’ in an upcoming sector. In India, that advantage goes to “Big Bazaar.” It has brought about many changes in the buying habits of people. It has created formats which provide all items under one roof at low rates, or so it claims.

Also, with the ever increasing array of private labels, it has opened the doors into the world of fashion and general merchandise including Home furnishings, utensils, plastics, crockery, cutlery, sports goods, car accessories, books and music, computer accessories and much more at prices that will surprise you. Big Bazaar is the destination where you get products available at prices lower than the MRP, setting a new level of standard in price, convenience and quality. First Food Bazaar format was added as Shop-In-Shop within Big Bazaar in the year 2002.Big Bazaar and Food Bazaar blend the look, feel and touch of Indian Bazaar with modern retail concepts of choice, convenience and quality. And this is just the beginning. Big Bazaar plans to add much more to complete your shopping experience.

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Leveraging on the company’s inherent strength of fashion, Big Bazaar has created a strong value-for-money proposition for its customers.

Its success is a true testament to the emotional bonding it has established with the Indian customer, on account of its value offerings, inspirational appeal and service levels.


1987 – company incorporated as ‘Manz Wear Private Limited’. Launch of Pantaloons Trouser, India’s first formal trouser brand.

1991 – launch of BARE

1992 – Initial Public Offer (IPO) was made in the month of May

1994 – the Pantaloon Shoppe – exclusive menswear store in franchisee format launched across the nation.

1995 – John Miller

1997 – company enters modern retail with the launch of the first 8000 square feet store, Pantaloons in Kolkata.

2001 – three Big Bazaar stores launched within 22 day in Kolkata, Bangalore and Hyderabad.

2002 – Food Bazaar

2004 – Central – India’s first seamless mall is launched in Bangalore.

2005 – acquires stakes in Galaxy Entertainment, Indus League Clothing and Planet Retail.

2006 – Future Capital Holdings.Future Group enters into joint ventures with US Office stationery retailer, Staples.

2007 – Future Group crosses $1 billion turnover mark.Pantaloon Retail wins the ‘International Retailer of the Year’ in New York and ‘Emerging Retailer’ of the year award in Barcelona.

2008 – Future Capitals Holdings becomes the second group company to make a successful IPO in the Indian Capital markets.Big Bazaar crosses 100 store mark.Future Group acquires rural retail chain, Aadhar present in 65 rural locations.

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1. Sales Executive in merchandising

Title: Sales Executive

Department: Merchandising

Summary: They help people buy what they need.


Handling Complaints

Maintaining Customer Relationships

Educate the customers, prospects and influencers.

Create and improve customer loyalty.

Demonstrate the products and services.

Report to: Buyer

Job specification

Education: High school graduate.

Experience: Relevant work experience

KSA: Ability to calculate prices quickly and accurately

awareness of current fashion trends and customer tastes

ability to remain courteous, patient and tactful when dealing with difficult customers

ability to work under pressure.

2. Sales Representative

Job Summary:

to promote the sale of the company's merchandise to existing customers to obtain and develop new business in line with company sales objectives and

strategic programmes.

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Key Responsibilities and Duties Performance indicators

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1. Technical and Product Knowledge

1.1. Maintain a detailed knowledge of company products, systems and services and apply it effectively in understanding customer/client problems, diagnosing requirements and offering solutions

customers are informed and delighted, needs are satisfied.

1.2. Maintain up-to-date knowledge of competitor's products, services and prices

can advise customers of advantages of own products over competitors.

1.3. Keep up-to-date on product technology particularly developments impacting on the company's product range and sales competitiveness.

can present new lines and technical developments and identify opportunities/threats to maintain and promote sales

2. Information Systems

2.1. manage appointments, schedules, time by effective planning of calls, travel and interviews

ratio of travel time to total time mileage/types of calls value of orders/calls made to types of customer evidence of good customer visit preparation

2.2. maintain own sales information system records: e.g. customer and prospect data and analysis of business obtained

complete records sales analysis reports and plans enable targeting of sales and achievement of sales targets completeness and reliability of customer data and its usage

2.3. maintain up-to-date files and portfolios of company sales literature, product specifications, offers/promotions, samples and prices

all necessary literature and sales promotion materials are available for customer visits and follow-ups

2.4. files/records on area/group competitors - personnel, products, services and activities are up-to-date and used effectively in analysis

representative contributes detailed knowledge of competitors to sales meetings and in planning own priorities

2.5. complete company paperwork relating to post: weekly sales reports, expense sheets, action reports and market intelligence reports

prompt, accurate, useful reports and returns.

2.6. ensure car is safety and economically driven, properly serviced and maintained

running and repair costs. Exterior and interior care reflects company

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3. Selling

3.1. Locate prospective customers no likely customer overlooked

3.2. Obtain inquiries from interested and prospective customers. Create opportunities to present company products/services. Provide effective presentations and demonstrations

number of inquiries number of presentations involvement with clients in supply chain discussions

3.3. Obtain orders to meet sales targets. Ensure that customer prblems arising from sales are responded effectively

achieved sales vs target sales profitability sales by customer group after-sales problems and service indicators

3.4.Manage agreed discounts to eligible customers in line with company promotion and profit policies

discounts in relation to sales value

3.5. Maintain high level selling skills by evaluating own competences and sales performance. demostrate ability as a learner manager

self-review planning and implementation contributions to sales training and peer development

3.6. Maintain liason with support departments in the company to ensure that value-added to the customer is maximised

no after-sales complaints support departments aware of customer needs no customers lost through lack of support from other depts

3.7. Assist customer accounts to obtain customer payments against outstanding accounts by following up queries and misunderstandings that may delay payment

low debtors ratio for represetnative's customers

4. Market Research

4.1. Offer feedback through reporting channels on: company image as perceived by customers, competitors and the industry acceptance/competitiveness of company products and services unexploited sales opportunities technological developments affecting the company

the company is informed about business trends/opportunities new competitor lines are analysed and reported contributions to sales quality meetings

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4.2. provide regular and up-to-date information on customer businesses developments/activities relating to needs, likely demand, trading weaknesses and reactions to our goods and services

customer business evalation reports operations, product and service development and accounts departments have up-to-date information

4.3. do the same (4.2.) for competitors in sales area competitor business evalation reports as for 4.2.

4.4. undertake individual projects for National FS Mgr

customer business evalation reports investigations completed, effective informative reports useful for business development

Scope of Authority

to charge business travel and car expenses to company expense account negotiation of discounts for customers within the parameters defined by company discounting policy

3. Marketing Manager

Develop pricing strategies, balancing firm objectives and customer satisfaction.

Identify, develop, and evaluate marketing strategy, based on knowledge of establishment objectives, market characteristics, and cost and markup factors.

Evaluate the financial aspects of product development, such as budgets, expenditures, research and development appropriations, and return-on-investment and profit-loss projections.

Formulate, direct and coordinate marketing activities and policies to promote products and services, working with advertising and promotion managers.

Direct the hiring, training, and performance evaluations of marketing and sales staff and oversee their daily activities.

Negotiate contracts with vendors and distributors to manage product distribution, establishing distribution networks and developing distribution strategies.Consult with product development personnel on product specifications such as design, color, and packaging.

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Compile lists describing product or service offerings.Use sales forecasting and strategic planning to ensure the sale and profitability of products, lines, or services, analyzing business developments and monitoring market trends.

Confer with legal staff to resolve problems, such as copyright infringement and royalty sharing with outside producers and distributors.

Coordinate and participate in promotional activities and trade shows, working with developers, advertisers, and production managers, to market products and services.

Advise business and other groups on local, national, and international factors affecting the buying and selling of products and services.


Sales and marketing

Customer and personal service

English Language

Administration and Management

Communications and Media 


Computers and Electronics 

Education and Training


Personnel and Human Resources

Critical Thinking

Judgment and Decision Making

Time Management 


Speech Clarity 

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Problem Sensitivity