The AWACS Story

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The AWACS Story. William A. Skillman Westinghouse Retiree April 24, 2013. The Need for AWACS. 1962 Air Force AEW Pulse Radar (EC-121 Warning Star) blind to low-flying targets Pulse Doppler developing technology offered look-down capability: - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • The AWACS Story

    William A. SkillmanWestinghouse Retiree April 24, 2013

  • The Need for AWACS1962 Air Force AEW Pulse Radar (EC-121 Warning Star) blind to low-flying targetsPulse Doppler developing technology offered look-down capability:Westinghouse: BOMARC, F-4J (F-4 A/C) Single Target radars, APQ-81-Track-While-Scan (U.S. Navy)Hughes: F-15General Electric/Northrop Grumman: E-2, Hawkeye, carrier AEW

    1963 USAF TAC & ADC issued SOR-206 Airborne Warning and Control System (AWACS)

    AEW = Airborne Early WarningSOR = Specific Operational Requirement

  • Response to SOR 206AIRFRAME Proposals: Boeing, Douglas, LockheedRADAR Proposals: Westinghouse, Hughes, Raytheon, GE, 3 othersAIR FORCE: SAB determined proof of concept needed, ASD formulated Overland Technology Program(ORT) DOD funded ORT program 1964

    SAB=Air Force Scientific Advisory Board ASD=AF Aeronautical Systems Division (Wright-Pat) DOD=Department of Defense

  • ORT Aircraft EC121-1966 Three Aircraft with scaled radars: WestinghouseHigh PRF (Pulse Repetition Frequency) Hughes Medium PRFRaytheon Low PRFRadar Antenna mounted in lower radome

  • ORT Antenna in EC-121 Radome

    Low sidelobe slotted waveguide array

  • Results of ORT Flight Tests

    1968 Raytheon and GE dropped 1968-70 AWACS Support Program to develop critical radar technologies1970 Boeing selected as prime contractor1970 Radar Fly-off initiated: WECO and Hughes design & build Brassboard radars

  • Brassboard Fly-offDec. 1971- Radars delivered to Boeing - Seattle1972 - Radars installed in 2 Boeing 707sMar.-Sep. 1972 Radar Test Flights Westinghouse: 49 flights, 300 hoursOct. 1972 Flight test results and DDT& E proposals resulted in Westinghouse win

  • Westinghouse Brassboard Radar

  • AWACS Brassboard AntennaSlotted Waveguide Planar ArrayLow Sidelobes to minimize ground clutterElectronic Steering in Elevation for height finding

  • Brassboard Aircraft

  • The Road to ProductionPost-Win: Airborne Tracking Demo - 6 flights VIP flights Andrews AFBJan. 1973 Full Scale Production Authorized1974 Jamming Vulnerability Adequate1975 Production Radar Flight test begunOct. 1976 1st Prod. Radar delivered to BoeingMar. 1977 1st E-3A, Sentry, delivered to A.F.May 1978 Initial Operational Capability - 6 A/C

  • 1980 Icelandic Odyssey!Balto. > Tinker > Keflavik> England + ReversePurpose: observe performance of improvement

  • Who has 707 AWACS?U.S.A.F. AN/APY-1 Active: ........................................31 Scrap (TS-3 BB A/C).................... 1 Crashes (Nellis & Elmendorf AFB)..2NATO AN/APY-2 Active: ........................................17 Crash (Greece) ............................1U.K. ..................................................7France .............................................4Saudi Arabia ....................................5 TOTAL..........................................68

  • Recent AWACS VariantsBoeing 707 out of productionBoeing 767 Japan 4Phased Array Wedgetail -Boeing 737Australia 6Turkey 4South Korea 4

  • AWACS DeploymentsSaudi Arabia YemenDesert Storm - IraqAllied Force - KosovoEnduring Freedom - AfganistanIraqi FreedomOdyssey Dawn/Unified Protector - LibyaNoble Eagle Homeland defenseHumanitarian Relief Hurricanes Rita & Katrina

  • Non-US AWACS RadarsThese countries are the only exporters, besides the U.S., of an AWACS type radar.Russia IL-76 or A50 or MainstaySweden SAAB, Ericsson, ErieyeChina KJ-2000 (mod IL-76) Israel Israeli Aircraft Industries Phalcon

    Numerous radar/aircraft combinations are being supplied to other countries.

  • ReferencesMuch of the material was drawn from:Development of the Airborne Warning and Control System (AWACS) Radar by Wm. A. Skillman and Robert E. Cowdery, recipients of the IEEE AESS 1995 Pioneer Award for the development of AWACS. Published in the IEEE Trans. on Aerospace and Electronic Systems, Vol 31, No. 4, Oct. 1995. For a later version with color pictures, as well as this slide show, see the author's website at http://SkillmansofAmerica.com Link to my home page top right Here you can also find two eye-witness accounts of the Hindenburg disaster of 1937 and a slide show Remembering the Hindenburg by the author.