Techniques and Exercises Used in Team Building
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Techniques and Exercises Used In Team BuildingPresented To Prof. Monika Srivastava Presented By Prachi Bajpai(1223) Pranoti Sau(1226)
A number of techniques and exercises are used in team building to facilitate team performance and to address specific problematic issues. issues. They are useful and powerful ways to structure the teams activities and energies in order to achieve understanding of the issues and to take corrective action. action.
Exercises and Techniques1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
Role Analysis Technique Interdependency Exercises A Role Negotiation Technique The Appreciations and Concerns Exercise Responsibility Charting Visioning Force Field Analysis Constructive Interventions.
Role Analysis Technique
The role analysis technique( RAT or RAP) intervention is designed to clarify role expectations and obligations of team members to improve team effectiveness. effectiveness. The technique was developed by Ishwar Dayal and John M. Thomas for clarifying the roles of top management in India. India. This technique is particularly applicable for new teams, but it may also be helpful in established teams where role ambiguity or confusion exist. exist.
The intervention is predicted on the belief that consensual determination of role requirements for team members, consisting of a joint building of the requirements by all concerned, leads to more mutually satisfactory and productive behavior. Hence Dayal and behavior. Thomas called it as role analysis technique. technique. The role being defined is called focal role. focal
In new organization, it may be desirable to conduct a role analysis. analysis. There are 4 steps involved in this processprocessThe 1st step consist of the focal roles initiated by the focal role individual with organizational goals kept in mind, these duties and behavior are listed in chalkboard and then discussed by the entire team. team. 2nd step examines the focal role incumbents expectations of others. others. The incumbent list his or her expectations, of the other roles that most affect the incumbents own role. These role. expectations are discussed, modified, and agreed upon by the group and the focal role person.
In 3rd step the group tells the incumbent that what they expect from him in the focal role. Again it is discussed within the role. group. group. In this final step the focal person is asked to write summary of the role as it has been defined this is known as Role Profile and is derived from the results of discussion. discussion.
An interdependency exercise is a useful intervention if team members have expressed a desire to improve cooperation among themselves and among their units. units. It is also useful for assisting people in getting better acquainted, in surfacing problems that may be latent and not previously examined, and in providing useful information about current challenge being faced in others areas of responsibility. responsibility. It basically works well with approximately 10 people. people.
A Role Negotiation Technique
Role negotiation intervenes directly in the relationships of power, authority, and influence within the group. The group. change effort is directed at the work relationships among members. members. It avoids probing into the likes and dislikes of members for one another and their personal feelings about one another. another. The technique is basically an imposed structure for controlled negotiations between parties in which each party agrees in writing to change certain behaviors in return for changes in behavior of the other. other.
The technique was developed by Roger Harrison. He Harrison. outlined this technique into following stepsstepsContract Setting- Here the consultant sets the climate and Settingestablishes the ground rules. Here one party put their views rules. to other party that what change they require to make or not. not. Issue Diagnosis- Individuals think about how their own Diagnosiseffectiveness can be improved if others change their behavior. behavior. Influence Trade- It is also called the negotiation period in Tradewhich the two parties discuss the most important behavior changes they want from other and the changes they are willing to make themselves. themselves.
The Appreciations and Concerns Exercise
The appreciation and concerns exercise may be appropriate if interview data suggest that one of the deficiencies in the interactions of members of a group is lack of expression of appreciation and that another deficiency is the avoidance of confronting concerns and irritations. Basically in this exercise each member of the group writes appreciation as well as concerns for other members in the paper and read out in front of others. This version is usually productive.
An appreciation can be a powerful and positive intervention in the life of the group. when the concern segment is used, a mini group. lecture from the facilitator on the nature of constructive feedback is desirable. desirable.
Responsibility ChartingRichard Beckhard and Ruben Harris gave this technique. It is a simple, relevant, and effective technique for improving team functioning. It helps to clarify who is responsible for what on various decisions and actions.
RESPONSIBLE: Do The Job. Execute.R:
ResponsibleThese are the individuals who actually complete the task or activity and are responsible for action and/or implementation. Responsibility is often shared, with each individuals degree of responsibility determined by the individual with the A.
A: C: I:
Accountable Consult Inform
ACCOUNTABLE: Make the Decision. Take Ultimate Ownership.
Responsible AccountableThis is the individual who carries the yes or no authority and has full veto power for an activity. It is important to clarify the levels of accountability and to distinguish between management accountability and operational accountability. Only one A can be assigned to a task or activity and authority must accompany accountability.
S: I: 15]
CONSULT: Communication Before. In The Loop.R: A: S:
Responsible Accountable Support
These are the individuals who are providing logistical support and resources for the particular work. I: Inform
INFORM: Need To Know. Do Not Change The Decision.R: A: C: I:
Responsible Accountable Consult Inform
These are the individuals who need to be informed after a decision or action is taken because they, in turn, may take action or make a decision based on the output. Inform implies only one-way communication. one-
RACI Chart Example
RACI Vertical Analysis
Lots of Rs does the individual have too much work No empty spaces does the individual need to be involved in this many activities. Are they a gatekeeper? No Rs or As should the role be eliminated? Too many As is there proper segregation of duties? Is this a bottleneck? Qualification - Does the type or degree of participation fit the qualifications of the role?
RACI Horizontal AnalysisNo Rs is the job getting done? Too many Rs is this a sigh of over the wall activities? Just get it off my desk? No As Why note? Who is accountable To many As Is there confusion? Who is doing what? Too few As and Rs Is the process slowing down while activity is performed on an ad hoc basis. Are procedures outdated and need to be streamlined. Lots of Cs are they necessary Lots of Is should this be standard or only on an exception basis. All boxes full Too many people involved.
Assign responsibility to only one person. Avoid having too many people with an approval-veto function on approvalan item. If one person has approval- veto approvalinvolvement on most decisions, that person could become a bottleneck for getting things done. Support role must be clarified and clearly assigned.
VISIONING ISIONING Ronald Lipitt has given this concept in 1949. 1949. This term used for an intervention in which group members in one or more organizational groups describe their vision of what they want the organization to be like in future. future.
Force field AnalysisForce field analysis is a management technique developed by Kurt Lewin, a pioneer in the field of social sciences, for Lewin, diagnosing situations. situations. Lewin assumes that in any situation there are both driving and restraining forces that influence any change that may occur: occur:
Driving Forces Restraining Forces Equilibrium
FORCE FIELD ANALYSISFFA is an analysis technique to identify forces that either drive or restrain planned change aimed at solving a problem in an organization. It is a creative activity that can organization. be used by needs analysts as they focus on solutions which will help an organization make a transformation from the current (problem) state to the desired (solved) state as they identify interventions to improve performance. performance.
HOW TO CONDUCT:Following STEPS are taken: taken: Describe the current situation .
Describe the desired situation . Identify where the current situation will go if no action is taken . List all the forces driving change toward the desired situation List all the forces resisting change toward the desired situation discuss and interrogate all of the forces: are they valid?
Advantages of Force Field Analysis
Brings into the open factors which will work for and against the closing of a gap Identified by a needs analysis. Helps to recognize circumstances which can and cannot be changed. Provides a means to analyze ways to minimize or eliminate barriers to goal