Surgical Instruments and Common Surgical Procedures

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    Surgical Instrumentsand Surgical Procedures

    Dima Flavia

    Dinca Bogdan

    Grupa 5,Seria A,MG I

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    Categories of Instruments

    Instrument usage

    Scissors andScalpels

    Hemostats, Forceps,

    and Clamps

    Specula, Scopes,Probes, Retractors,and Dilators

    Cutting

    Grasping andClamping

    Dilating andProbing

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    Cutting

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    Used to cut the skin, sometimescalled a surgical knife

    Disposale Scalpel

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    Most common si!es are

    "##, "#$, and "#5

    Surgical Blades

    #24#22

    #

    #2#!

    #"

    #2

    #2 #

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    Straig$t Scissors

    S$arp%S$arp &lunt%&lunt S$arp%&lunt

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    Cur'ed Scissors

    S$arp%S$ar S$arp%&lunt &lunt%&lu

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    (a)o Dissecting Scissors

    Straight %urved

    &eav'(dut' )ith narro)ed ut lunt pointed

    lades

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    Iris Scissors

    straight curved

    Smallscissors designed for *nedetail

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    Suture Remo'al Scissors

    Straight angled

    &ook(shaped point on one lade used to hook

    under the stitch efore cutting

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    &andage Scissors

    *ister scissors +noles scissors

    Designed for cutting bandages on patients

    it$out cutting t$e patient

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    Grasping

    and

    Clamping

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    Hemostat ForcepsMos+uito

    ell'Serrations onl' along

    part of the tip

    Some ma) $a'eteet$-ll ma) be

    straig$t orcur'ed

    Serrations alongthe entire tips

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    Sometimes called -pick(ups.

    Some )ith teeth are called tissue forceps

    /hum Forceps

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    .ar and /asal Forceps

    &artman forceps Alligator forceps

    Bent for ease in ear and nose procedures

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    Used to hold surgical gau!e sponges

    Ma' e straight or curved

    Sponge Forceps

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    Used for *0ing drapes to the skinof anestheti!ed patients

    /o)el %lamp

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    1ften called needle drivers

    &olds needles *rml' )ithout crushing

    2eedle &older

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    Dilating

    and

    probing

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    Specula and ScopesAre used to e0pose od' ori*ces ' )idening for etter

    vie)ing

    0aginal /asal -noscope%Proctoscope

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    Retractors

    3eitlaner retractor 4olkman etractor

    Used to hook and retract the edges of a )ound for

    etter vie)Self 6retaining Manual

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    Dilators

    Hegar Dilators Pratt Dilators

    Doule(ended metal rods ranging in si!e

    used for graduall' dilating an opening

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    Sutturing

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    Appendectom' is the surgical removal ofthe appendi0, a small, *nger(shaped pouchthat is located at the cecum 7the 8unctionet)een the large and small intestines9:

    /he surger' is the standard treatment forappendicitis 7in;ammation and infection ofthe appendi09 and patients usuall' recoverfrom appendectom' )ithout e0periencingcomplications: A ruptured appendi0 isconsidered a medical emergenc'

    -ppendectom)

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    Surgeons use one of t)o surgicaltechni+ues, open appendectom' orlaparoscopic appendectom' : /he choice ofmethod is made ' the surgeon on a case(

    '(case asis: General anesthesia 7agentthat renders the patient unconscious9 isused in oth procedures:

    Surgical Procedures

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    1pen appendectom' is the traditionalmethod and the standard treatment forappendicitis: /he surgeon makes an incisionin the lo)er right adomen, pulls the

    appendi0 through the incision, ties it o< atits ase, and removes it: %are is taken toavoid spilling purulent material 7pus9 fromthe appendi0 )hile it is eing removed: /heincision is then sutured:

    1pen -ppendectom)

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    If the appendi0 has perforated 7ruptured9,the surgeon cleans the pus out of the adomen

    )ith a )arm saline solution to reduce the riskfor infection: A drain ma' e inserted throughthe incision to allo) the pus to drain from theadomen: In this case, the skin is not sutured,ut left open and packed )ith sterile gau!e:

    /he gau!e and drain remain in place until thepus is completel' drained and there is no signof infection:If the adomen is so in;amed thatthe surgeon cannot see the appendi0, the

    infection is drained and treated )ithantiiotics, and then the appendi0 is removed:

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    /his method has een used for over a decade and itma' ecome the standard of care: /he procedure hasseveral advantages including lo)er risk for postoperativeinfection, faster recover' time, a smaller scar, and a shorterhospital sta':

    *aparoscapic-ppendectom)

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    /he surgeon makes a ver' small incisionright elo) the navel and inserts aninstrument called a laparoscope: /helaparoscope is a long tue )ith a lens at

    one end and a miniature video camera atthe other: /he laparoscope enales thedoctor to see the appendi0: Several moretin' incisions are made to allo) for thepassage of instruments, )hich are used tocut and clamp o< the appendi0:

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    /he laparoscope is also used as adiagnostic tool: /he doctor is ale to see ifthe appendi0 is in;amed and, if theappendi0 is not the cause of the patient=s

    s'mptoms, other organs can e seen inorder to identif' the source of thes'mptoms:

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    A h'sterectom' is a surgical procedure)here' the uterus 7)om9 is removed:&'sterectom' is the most common non(ostetrical surgical procedure of )omen in

    the United States: Appro0imatel' >$$ out ofever' #$$,$$$ )omen )ill undergo ah'sterectom':

    H)sterectom)

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    /otal adominal h'sterectom' 4aginal &'sterectom' Supracervical h'sterectom'

    ?aparoscop'( assisted vaginal h'sterectom' ?aparoscopic supra cervical h'sterectom' adical h'sterectom'

    )pes of H)sterectomies

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    During this procedure, the uterus isremoved through the vagina: A vaginalh'sterectom' is appropriate onl' forconditions such as uterine prolapse,

    endometrial h'perlapsia, or cervicald'splasia: /he )oman )ill need to have herlegs raised up in a stirrup device throughoutthe procedure:

    0aginal H)sterectom)

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    7?A4&9 is similar to the vaginalh'sterectom' procedure descried aove,ut it adds the use of a laparoscope: Alaparoscope is a ver' thin vie)ing tue )ith

    a magnif'ing glass(like device at the end ofit: %ertain )omen )ould e est served 'having laparoscop' used during vaginalh'sterectom' ecause it allo)s the upperadomen to e carefull' inspected duringsurger':

    *aparoscop)3assisted 'aginal$)sterectom) *-0H5

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