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  • Stakeholder meeting on water scarcity and droughts – Brussels, 27 April 2010 1

    Monitoring droughts at the European scale: The European Drought Observatory

    Simone Rossi, Stefan Niemeyer European Commission Joint Research Centre

    Institute for Environment and Sustainability Ispra (VA), Italy

  • Stakeholder meeting on water scarcity and droughts – Brussels, 27 April 2010 2

    Platform for drought detection and monitoring, forecasting, and information exchange

    Commonly agreed products (e.g. drought indices) Joint comparison and analysis of information

    Multi-scale approach Continental level MS level Regional level

    Subsidiarity principle European level information (+ platform) to be developed and managed at JRC National datasets managed at MS level Regional information processed by river basin / regional environmental authorities

    A European Drought Observatory

  • Stakeholder meeting on water scarcity and droughts – Brussels, 27 April 2010 3

    Subsidiarity principle within EDO

    Ministerio de Medio Ambiente (MARM) Observatorio Nacional de la Sequía Sistema Integrado de Información del Agua (SIA) e.g. drought indicator, actual ET, …

    Joint Research Centre Drought Monitoring and Forecasting EDO drought indicators

    p g y p ypp g y p yp

    Confederación Hidrográfica del Ebro SAIH Ebro, SITEbro Evolucción de la reserva hidraulica

  • Stakeholder meeting on water scarcity and droughts – Brussels, 27 April 2010 4

    Contributions to the European Drought Observatory

    The EDO Portal

  • Stakeholder meeting on water scarcity and droughts – Brussels, 27 April 2010 5

    No single operational definition of drought works in all circumstances!

    Different Definitions of Drought

    from the National Drought Mitigation Center

  • Stakeholder meeting on water scarcity and droughts – Brussels, 27 April 2010 6

    Different Drought indicators

    A multidisciplinary set of indicators to constantly monitor the various environmental components potentially affected by droughts (soil, vegetation, etc.) in order to obtain a comprehensive and updated picture of the situation.

    No single operational definition of drought

    (Source : USGS)

  • Stakeholder meeting on water scarcity and droughts – Brussels, 27 April 2010 7

    The EDO Portal

    http://edo.jrc.ec.europa.eu/

  • Stakeholder meeting on water scarcity and droughts – Brussels, 27 April 2010 8

    Soil Moisture

    Daily soil moisture Daily soil moisture anomaly Forecasted soil moisture anomaly Forecasted soil moisture trend

    Precipitation

    Monthly Standardized Precipitation Index

    Vegetation status NDWI 10-day daily composites fAPAR 10-day composites. fAPAR anomalies 10-day composites.

    Products available @ the EDO Map Server

  • Stakeholder meeting on water scarcity and droughts – Brussels, 27 April 2010 10

    Soil Moisture Soil Moisture Anomaly

    -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 wetter normal drier

    1.8 2.2 2.6 3.0 3.4 3.8 4.2 4.6 5.0 very wet very dry

    Soil Moisture Information, Daily Maps

    EDO – Soil Moisture Drought Products

  • Stakeholder meeting on water scarcity and droughts – Brussels, 27 April 2010 11

    1-week trend of soil moisture

    wetter normal drier -4 -2 0 +2 +4

    1-week anomaly forecast

    EDO – Soil Moisture Drought Products

  • Stakeholder meeting on water scarcity and droughts – Brussels, 27 April 2010 12

    SPI values

    are classified

    as: Very

    dry: less

    than

    -2 Moderate dry: between

    -1.5 and -2 Dry: between

    -1.5 and -1 Normal: between

    -1 and 1 Wet: between

    1 and 1.5 Moderate wet: between

    1.5 and 2 Very

    wet: more than

    2

    One of the most used drought indices •

    Calculated for different averaging periods (1, 3, 6, 9, 12 months).

    The Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI)

    1.8 2.2 2.6 3.0 3.4 3.8 4.2 4.6 5.0 very wet very dry 2 1 0 -1 -2

    EDO – Meteorological Drought Products

  • Stakeholder meeting on water scarcity and droughts – Brussels, 27 April 2010 13

    Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) 10-day composites

    EDO – Remote Sensing Drought Products

  • Stakeholder meeting on water scarcity and droughts – Brussels, 27 April 2010 14

    The Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation (fAPAR)

    Indicator of the state and productivity of vegetation.

    fAPAR is a measure of the canopy’s energy absorption capacity (how large a fraction of the sunlight leaves absorb in the 0.4–0.7 μm spectrum).

    http://fapar.jrc.ec.europa.eu

    EDO – Remote Sensing Drought Products

  • Stakeholder meeting on water scarcity and droughts – Brussels, 27 April 2010 15

    MERIS fAPAR anomalies

    21-31 May 2009

    Positive anomaly

    Negative anomaly

    EDO – Remote Sensing Drought Products

  • Stakeholder meeting on water scarcity and droughts – Brussels, 27 April 2010 16

    fAPAR for Spain derived from ESA ENVISAT/MERIS

    June-August 2008 (10-day periods)

    fAPAR Anomaly 1999-2006 compared to SPI-3 drought

    EDO – Remote Sensing Drought Products

  • Stakeholder meeting on water scarcity and droughts – Brussels, 27 April 2010 17

    Comparison of the performances fAPAR anomalies VS NDVI anomalies

    fAPAR –SPI3 NDVI –SPI3

    Positive correlation on 95.5% of the area

    Positive correlation on 79.4% of the area

    Products available @ the EDO Map Server

    (Rossi et al 2008)

  • Stakeholder meeting on water scarcity and droughts – Brussels, 27 April 2010 18

    Kml Google Earth file

    Output options @ the EDO Map Server

  • Stakeholder meeting on water scarcity and droughts – Brussels, 27 April 2010 19

    Report generation (pdf)

    Output options @ the EDO Map Server

  • Stakeholder meeting on water scarcity and droughts – Brussels, 27 April 2010 20

    Multisource Drought Monitoring: examples

    fAPAR anomalies, soil moisture anomalies, and SPI3

    Agricultural area in Suffolk

  • Stakeholder meeting on water scarcity and droughts – Brussels, 27 April 2010 21

    Maps from: Terry Marsh (CEH Wallingford), The UK drought of 2003 - an overview http://www.nwl.ac.uk/ih/nrfa/yb/yb2003/drought2003/

    Oct 2002-Jan 2003 regional rainfall totals in mm and as a percentage of the 1961-90 average

    Aug-Oct 2003 regional rainfall totals in mm and as a percentage of the

    1961-90 average

    Soil Moisture Deficits in mm at the end of September 2003

    Multisource Drought Monitoring: examples

    fAPAR anomalies, soil moisture anomalies, and SPI3

  • Stakeholder meeting on water scarcity and droughts – Brussels, 27 April 2010 22

    Drought events in 2005 and 2006.

    fAPAR anomalies, soil moisture anomalies, and SPI3

    Multisource Drought Monitoring: examples

  • Stakeholder meeting on water scarcity and droughts – Brussels, 27 April 2010 23

    Drought impacts on agricultural production

    Andalusia

  • Stakeholder meeting on water scarcity and droughts – Brussels, 27 April 2010 24

    Continuous testing and improvement of the indicators already regularly produced.

    Implementation of additional drought information and water availability indicators (e.g. low flows, snow cover)

    Implementation of a composite drought indicator.

    Inclusion of drought information produced by national and regional authorities.

    Way Forward for EDO

  • Stakeholder meeting on water scarcity and droughts – Brussels, 27 April 2010 25

    Thank you!

    simone.rossi@jrc.ec.europa.eu http://desert.jrc.ec.europa.eu

    Slide Number 1 Slide Number 2 Slide Number 3 Contributions to the European Drought Observatory Slide Number 5 Slide Number 6 Slide Number 7 Slide Number 8 Slide Number 10 Slide Number 11 Slide Number 12 Slide Number 13 Slide Number 14 Slide Number 15 Slide Number 16 Slide Number 17 Slide Number 18 Slide Number 19 Slide Number 20 Slide Number 21 Slide Number 22 Slide Number 23 Slide Number 24 Slide Number 25