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Transcript of Sowing the seeds forsustainability - .Sowing the seeds forsustainability Agriculture, Biodiversity,

  • Sowing the seeds for sustainabilityAgriculture, Biodiversity, Economics and Society

    Edited by Rachel Wiseman and Liz Hopkins

  • IUCN European Regional Office (ERO)

    The mandate of IUCN - ERO is to contribute to a sustainableEurope by influencing policy development and implementa-tion for biodiversity and landscape conservation, restorationand sustainable use inside and outside Europe.

    The European Programme is active in agriculture, forestry and fisheries and,through its expert networks, protected areas and species conservation.

    The Programme provides input to regional and global policy especially the EUenlargement to central Europe; the Pan-European Biological and LandscapeDiversity Strategy; trade and the range of multilateral environmental agreements.

    Developing partnerships and networking activities with our 341 government andNGO members builds the knowledge and provides the authority for achieving theobjectives of the IUCN programme in Europe.

  • Sowing the seeds for sustainabilityAgriculture, Biodiversity, Economics and Society

    Proceedings of the Eighth Interactive Session

    held at the Second IUCN World Conservation Congress

    Amman, Jordan 7 October 2000

    Edited by Rachel Wiseman and Liz Hopkins

    IUCN The World Conservation Union


  • The designation of geographical entities in this book, and the presentation of the material, do not implythe expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of IUCN, the German Federal Agency for NatureConservation (Bundesamt fr Naturschutz - BfN), FAO, or the Dutch Ministry of Agriculture, NatureManagement and Fisheries (Ministerie van Landbouw, Natuurbeheer en Visserij - LNV) concerning thelegal status of any country, territory, or area, or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of itsfrontiers or boundaries.

    The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect those of IUCN, BfN, FAO or LNV.

    Published by: IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK

    Copyright: 2001 International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

    Reproduction of this publication for educational or other non-commercial purposes isauthorized without prior written permission from the copyright holder provided thesource is fully acknowledged.

    Reproduction of this publication for resale or other commercial purposes is prohibitedwithout prior written permission of the copyright holder.

    Citation: Wiseman, R.E. and Hopkins, E.A. (eds). 2001. Sowing the Seeds of Sustainability:Agriculture, Biodiversity, Economics and Society. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland andCambridge, UK. 133 pp.

    ISBN: 2-8317-0632-7

    Cover design by: Robin Padian

    Cover illus.: (Front, from top right) Geoff Dor/BBC Natural History Unit; M. Woods/NaturalImage; Jeremy Walker/BBC Natural History Unit; (left) Hugh Synge.

    (Back cover, from top left) Bob Gibbons/Natural Image; William Osborn/BBCNatural History Unit; painting by Laura Pedrotti.

    Produced by: Hugh Synge and IUCN European Regional Office

    Printed by: Cigam Group, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, England

    Available from: IUCN European Regional Office IUCN Publications Services UnitBredaseweg 387, 5037 LD Tilburg, 219c Huntingdon Road The Netherlands Cambridge CB3 ODL, UKTel: +31 13 5900347, fax: +31 13 5900345 Tel: +44 1223 277894, fax: +44 1223 277175E-mail: E-mail: info@books.iucn.org

    A catalogue of IUCN publications is also available.

    This book is printed on chlorine-free paper produced from sustainable managed forests.

  • ContentsAcknowledgements 1

    Foreword 3

    Setting the Scene: An Introduction to the Session 5

    Agriculture and Biodiversity: The Challenge for Conservationn 6

    Results and Recommendations from the Debate 9

    Chapter 1: Farming in Drylands 11


    Sustainable Development and Desertification in African Drylands Targeting desertification 11 caused by increased human pressure on dryland resources through community-based development programmes, by Walter Lusigi

    Conservation and Sustainable Use of Dryland Agro-biodiversity in Jordan Current Status, 22by Mohammad Ajlouni

    Australian Rangelands: Managing for production and biodiversity, by John Benson 26

    Discussion Points from the Session 31

    Additional Contributions

    Desertification, Biodiversity and Environmental Problems in the Agricultural and 32 Socio-economic Development of Nigeria Causes, consequences and recommendations, by Adeniyi Olabasi Arimoro

    Pasture Farming Strategy for Ecologically Sustainable Agriculture and Reconstruction of 36Biodiversity in Deserted Territories, by Stanislav Pavlov and Tatiana Bakinova

    Agriculture and Biodiversity in the Drylands of Africa, by Michael Darkoh 38

    Chapter 2: Farming in Wetlands 51


    Agriculture and Wetlands in the Mekong Basin, by Kosal Mam 51

    The Macanas Wetland Reserve Conservation and Agricultural Use Area, 58 by Ren Chang Marn

    Discussion Points from the Session 61

    Additional Contributions

    Role of Biodiversity in the Conservation and Future Sustenance of the Rice Field 62Agro-ecosystem, by Channa Bambaradeniya and J.P. Edirisinghe

    Dams in the Senegal Valley a Case Study on Wetlands, Biodiversity and Local Communities, 64by Abdoulaye Ndiaye

  • Chapter 3: Farming in Temperate Zones 67

    Biodiversity and the Effects of the EU Common Agricultural Policy, by Christopher Howe 67

    and Richard Perkins

    Agricultural Policy and Conservation in the United States, by Annie Kirschenmann 72

    The Opportunities for Sustainable Agriculture in CIS: Balancing on the wire, 74 by Alexander Karpov, Dmitry Cherniakhovsky and Julia Gorelova

    Discussion Points from the Session 79

    Additional Contributions

    Biodiversity of Medicago sp. pl. Rhizobium meliloti Symbiosis in Temperate Mediterranean 80 Zones (Sardinia, Italy), by Guiseppe Brundu, I. Camarda, M. Caredda, P. Deiana and S. Maltoni

    Chapter 4: Business Influence in the Agricultural Sector 83


    Vertical Integration within the Agricultural Sector: the European dimension, 83by Peter L. Nowicki

    Discussion Points from the Session 99

    Additional Contributions

    Invasion of Alien Seeds: Alien Species and Genetic Erosion of Indonesian Native Crops, 100by Sri Indiyastuti

    Chapter 5: The Trade Debate 103


    Free Trade Versus Fair Trade: Summary of the presentation given by Vandana Shiva 103

    Reconciling Agricultural Trade and Environmental Policy Goals, by Wilfrid Legg 104

    Discussion Points from the Session 109

    Chapter 6: GMOs Potential Value and Impacts 111


    Organic Farming Approaches to Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, by Bernward Geier 111

    Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) and Food Security: Summary of the presentation 113given by Zangliang Chen

    Discussion Points from the Session 114

    Additional Contributions

    The Impact of Biotechnology on Sustainable Agriculture Development in Latin American 116and the Caribbean region: The Andean countries as a Model, by Rodrigo Artunduaga-Salas

    The Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety Implications for Development Cooperation, 122by Frank Schmiedchen and Harmut Meyer

    Natures Matchless Seeds or Monsantos Colonised Crops?, by Evaggelos Vallianatos 127

    List of Contributors 129

    Acronyms 133

  • Sowing the Seeds for Sustainability 1


    The IUCN European Regional Office (ERO) wouldlike to thank the German Federal Agency forNature Conservation BfN (with funds from theGerman Federal Ministry for the Environment,Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety) andFAO for sponsoring the production of this publica-tion.

    This activity has been carried out with supportfrom the Dutch Ministry of Agriculture, NatureManagement and Fisheries LNV.

    We are extremely grateful to Dr Richard Smith,Professor Hardy Vogtmann, Dr Kalev Sepp and DrChris Howe for their assistance and time inAmman and to Professor Vogtmann and HE AnisMousher for chairing the Session.

    Many thanks to those who gave a presentation inAmman and produced a paper for this publication,and to those who sent posters and web contribu-tions to be displayed in Amman.

  • Sowing the Seeds for Sustainability 3

    Agriculture is one of the most important influ-ences on biological diversity. Conventional agri-culture has heavily contributed to reducing thediversity of ecosystems, species and genes, butagriculture has also created new diversity, espe-cially in the cultural landscapes of Central Europe.

    The interdependence between nature conserva-tion, agriculture, socio-economy and culture ishighly complex. This may be the reason why agri-culture has not been in the forefront of IUCN'swork. But the fact that about 50% of the EuropeanUnion's annual budget is used to maintain anunsustainable policy on agriculture illustrates theimportance of addressing this subject in the drivetowards sustainable development. One of the maintopics of the WTO conference is agricultural policy;decisions taken there will have a much greaterimpact on biological diversity than can beachieved by nature conservation instrumentsalone.

    I am, therefore, very grateful to the EuropeanRegional Office of IUCN for having taken up thechallenge to strengthen IUCNs contribution tothis policy field, one that will become ever moreimportant in the future. This resulting report is an

    important contribution to the mission of IUCN to"influence, encourage and assist societies toconserve the integrity and diversity of nature andto ensure that any use of natural resources is eq