SOUTH AFRICA and APARTEID. South Africa Most developed and wealthiest nation in Africa
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SOUTH AFRICA and APARTEID
South AfricaMost developed and wealthiest nation in Africa
Quick Early HistoryEuropeans came in 1600s (Dutch, Germans, French) and came to be known as Afrikaners or Boers . In late 1800s gold was discovered and British, arrived (Rioneks). In 1961, South Africa achieved independence from Britain, but not from white domination.
Beginnings of ApartheidIn 1948, the white minority government instituted a policy of apartheid complete separation of the races. It banned social contact between blacks and whites segregated schools, hospitals, and neighborhoods. the blacks made up 70% of the population, they received only a small amount of the land, keeping the best land for the whites.
Apartheid laws determined
Where you could live- townships, homelandsWhom you could marry (even who you could sleep with- immortality act)Whom you could do business withRestricted land ownershipPolice powers including arresting people without a trialRestriction of movement had to have passes
Regulation of living conditions, separate entrances for non whitesRegulation of pay and types of jobs for blacksLack of recognition for black labor unionsDenied any representation of nonwhites in the national governmentWhat you could learn in school. Science has proven that the black mind cannot learn at the same level as the white people.Blacks learned how to wash clothes and build things. Only enough math to count change
Many white and black South Africans fought apartheid through peaceful protest but well armed South African army responded with deadly force.
Indians and Coloreds13% populationSkilled jobs, secondary educationMarriage illegal until 1980s1980s right to vote Separated even from blacksColored are the lowestNo ethnic groups claim them
Africans70% populationCould not vote, little education, menial jobsPassbooks1958 forced to live on reserves (homelands) Reserves = 13% South Africas land. Poor land, limited farming, few facilities such as factories, modern roads, schools and hospitals
Black Society = poverty, struggling each day to feed their families, denied education, housing, and high-paying jobs
What is the problem?
ResistanceIn 1912, the blacks founded the African National Congress (ANC) to fight for their rights.
Resistance Movement = civil disobedience, strikes, boycotts, and nonviolent demonstrations
ResistanceIn 1949, Nelson Mandela emerged as one of the leaders of the ANC and he led the struggle to end apartheid that resulted in his being imprisoned.
Soweto (SOuth WEstern TOwnship)on the outskirts of Johannesburg.
It is the largest black urban centre in the country and was the centre of resistance against Apartheid during the 70's and 80's.
International PressureBy the 1980s, nations around the world pressured South Africa to end apartheid.So what could the rest of the world do? Its another independent country- what can be done?
Apartheid EndsIn 1989 Mr. DeKlerk became prime minister, and started making changes, even though he was under a lot of pressure not to.He released Nelson Mandela who had been in prison 20 years for protesting Apartheid. 1990-91 all Apartheid laws were removed
Majority RuleAn election that involved members of all races took place in 1994, making Nelson Mandela the first black President of South Africa.de Klerk is sworn in as deputy president.
Lingering ProblemsThe policy of apartheid has hurt the economy of South Africa.Many countries imposed sanctions to not do business with or invest in South Africa during apartheid.Apartheid led to poor education of blacks, creating an uneducated mass of young people.