SOUTH AFRICA and APARTHEID. South Africa Most developed and wealthiest nation in Africa
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SOUTH AFRICA and APARTHEID
South AfricaMost developed and wealthiest nation in Africa
Quick Early HistoryEuropeans came in 1600s (Dutch, Germans, French) and came to be known as Afrikaners or Boers . They claimed more & more African land by treaty and by force.In late 1800s gold was discovered and more people, especially the British, arrived. Friction developed and the British asserted more control Boer war --> British rule 1902.In 1961, South Africa achieved independence from Britain, but not from white domination. 1950-1980 economy grew VERY fast: WHY? 1. Coal 2. Money to invest 3. Connections with Europe 4. African cheap labor
Beginnings of ApartheidIn 1948, the white minority government instituted a policy of apartheid or complete separation of the races. It banned social contact between blacks and whites and established segregated schools, hospitals, and neighborhoods. Although the blacks made up 70% of the population, they received only a small amount of the land, keeping the best land for the whites.
Apartheid laws determined
Where you could liveWhom you could marryWhom you could do business withRestricted land ownershipPolice powers including arresting people without a trialRestriction of movement had to have passesRegulation of living conditions, separate entrances for non whitesRegulation of pay and types of jobs for blacksLack of recognition for black labor unionsDenied any representation of nonwhites in the national government
Many white and black South Africans fought apartheid through peaceful protest but the well armed South African army responded with deadly force.
Government Racial Categories European British and Dutch descent African various African ethnic groups Asian mostly of Indian descent Colored mixed race groups
EuropeansWhites dominated government, industry, agriculture, education, the military and the press17% of the population yet owned 87% of land
White Society = wealth and luxury, highest standard of living in Africa, attempted to recreate European society in their cities
Asians and Coloreds13% populationSkilled jobs, secondary educationMarriage illegal until 1980s1980s right to vote
Africans70% populationCould not vote, little education, menial jobsPassbooks1958 forced to live on reserves (homelands) Reserves = 13% South Africas land. Poor land, limited farming, few facilities such as factories, modern roads, schools and hospitals
Black Society = poverty, struggling each day to feed their families, denied education, housing, and high-paying jobs
Black Men = live apart from families for as much as 11 months of each year Black Women = domestic servants in houses owned by white people Blacks illegally squatted in shanty towns on the outskirts of white cities
ResistanceIn 1912, the blacks founded the African National Congress (ANC) to fight for their rights.
Resistance Movement = civil disobedience, strikes, boycotts, and nonviolent demonstrations
ResistanceIn 1949, Nelson Mandela emerged as one of the leaders of the ANC and he led the struggle to end apartheid that resulted in his being imprisoned.
Soweto (SOuth WEstern TOwnship)on the outskirts of Johannesburg.
It is the largest black urban centre in the country and was the centre of resistance against Apartheid during the 70's and 80's.
1976 Soweto On June 16, 1976, students left school in Soweto and other areas to protest the requirement to learn Afrikaans, replacing English, in the sub-standard Bantu education system.English was seen as a language of freedom, connecting Africans to the larger world, while Afrikaans, a South African variety of Dutch, was seen as the language of the oppressor state, the then ruling National Party.
Police opened fire on the students, killing first Hector Peterson, a young boy.
It took the government more than 12 months to contain the unrest which began on June 16 1976. More than 500 people were killed and more than 2,000 were injured during the uprising which followed. Political meetings were banned, and armed police patrolled the streets of Soweto. Student leaders sought sanctuary at a nearby church. Regina Mundy church was a haven. The police were not allowed to enter its doors. But instead they fired bullets and tear gas through the windows.
This unfortunate series of events lead to 14 years of unremitting violence in the country.
Soon after the uprising, Nelson Mandela got involved. After witnessing and reading of the killings in Soweto, Mandela (head of ANC) began using violence to get his point of black equality across. The Africa National Congress now adopted the idea of terrorism as a means to their end.
International PressureBy the 1980s, nations around the world pressured South Africa to end apartheid.So what could the rest of the world do? Its another independent country- what can be done?
SanctionsActions that punish a countryNo investmentsNo buying their productsNo tradeBanned from OlympicsAir travel restrictions
Sanctions were costing them $2 Billion per year!
Apartheid EndsIn 1989 Mr. DeKlerk became prime minister, and started making changes, even though he was under a lot of pressure not to.He released Nelson Mandela who had been in prison 20 years for protesting Apartheid. 1990-91 all Apartheid laws were removed
Nobel Peace Prize In 1993 DeKlerk and Mandela were given the Nobel Peace prize for their work in bringing an end to Apartheid.
Majority RuleAn election that involved members of all races took place in 1994, making Nelson Mandela the first black President of South Africa.de Klerk is sworn in as deputy president.
DeKlerk & Mandela
We dedicate this day to all the heroes and heroines in this country and the rest of the world who sacrificed in many ways and surrendered their lives so that we could be free. Their dreams have become reality. Freedom is their reward. We are both humbled and elevated by the honor and privilege that you, the people of South Africa, have bestowed on us, as the first President of a united, democratic, non-racial and non-sexist South Africa, to lead our country out of the valley of darkness. We understand that there is no easy road to freedom. We know it well that none of us acting alone can achieve success. We must therefore act together as a united people, for national reconciliation, for nation building, for the birth of a new world.
Let there be justice for all. Let there be peace for all. Let there be work, bread, water and salt for all. Let each know that for each the body, the mind and the soul have been freed to fulfill themselves. Never, never and never again shall it be that this beautiful land will again experience the oppression of one by another and suffer the indignity of being the skunk of the world. Let freedom reign. The sun shall never set on so glorious a human achievement! God bless Africa! Thank you.
Lingering ProblemsThe policy of apartheid has hurt the economy of South Africa.Many countries imposed sanctions to not do business with or invest in South Africa during apartheid.Apartheid led to poor education of blacks, creating an uneducated mass of young people.