South Africa

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South Africa. Early South Africa. 17th century-the Dutch were the first Europeans to settle in South Africa 19th century-Gold and diamonds were discovered in the region. The British and Dutch fought for control of these valuable resources. . Dutch Settling in South Africa. Early Apartheid. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Transcript of South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

1Part I:Early South Africa17th century-the Dutch were the first Europeans to settle in South Africa19th century-Gold and diamonds were discovered in the region. The British and Dutch fought for control of these valuable resources.

Dutch Settling in South Africa

Early ApartheidBy the early 20th century, the British military gained control of South Africa. South Africans were not allowed to vote under British rule- beginning of apartheid.Apartheid means separateness in Afrikaans, the language of the descendants of the Dutch settlers known as Afrikaaners. Many Europeans grew wealthy and powerful while millions of South Africans suffered.ApartheidIt was part of South African law until 1993. Apartheid was a system of legally enforced racial segregation in South Africa between 1948 and 1990.During apartheid, South Africans were legally classified by the color of their skin.The racial classifications were: white, black, Asian, and colored (mixed race). The majority of South Africans were classified as black.

Apartheid Institutionalized racism stripped South African blacks of their civil and political rights and instituted segregated education, health care, and all other public services, only providing inferior standards for blacks and other non-Afrikaans. What is Apartheid?Means apart-ness in AfrikaansDefinition- a policy of Segregation and political/economic discrimination against non-Europeans in South AfricaApartheids roots go as far back as 1652It was designed in 1917 by Jan Smuts, the Africaner Prime Minister of South AfricaIt was legalized in 1948.

87Complexities of ApartheidApartheid was more than just raceIncluded genderStrict hierarchyOnly White men could vote & own propertySystematic disadvantageAfrikaner MenEnglish Men Afrikaner WomenEnglish WomenOther Europeans/ honorary WhitesAsiansColoureds (people of mixed racial heritage)Africans88Men were always in a higher position. Honorary white- from Japan, etcOnly white men could own property or vote.Only white men could do anything.Come to house; look at you- skin color, hair texture, eye color-classify you into one of the groups. Families were split. People went to different colleges, schools. Opportunities available to you. Social GroupingIn 1948 (right after the end of WWII), the South African government grouped people into 3 groups:BlackNative AfricansWhiteEuropean descendantsColouredMixed race people and Asians

9ApartheidNon-whites had separate schools, hospitals, beaches, and libraries; they couldnt share drinking fountains or restrooms. The services and buildings for whites were much better than those for everyone else. During apartheid, white people in South Africa lived in conditions that were better than those found anywhere else in Africa.ApartheidThey were forced to move to homelands and could not vote.Homelands were poor, crowded areas far away from cities. Homelands often did not have water or electricity. Even though these areas were named homelands, most black South Africans had never actually lived there before.

Apartheid Townships During the Apartheid Era, blacks were evicted from properties that were designated as "white only" and forced to move into townships. Legislation that enabled the Apartheid government to do this included the Group Areas Act.

Typical Homestead

Typical Squatters Camp

Coloured

Grand Laws of ApartheidTHE POPULATION REGISTRATION ACTgrouped every South African into a particular race (white, Indian, Coloured, and Black). Only whites could vote. Those lower down on the list had fewer rights.THE MIXED MARRIAGES ACTmade it a crime for any marriage to take place between whites and any other racial group. Only 75 marriages between blacks and whites had been recorded before Apartheid began.THE IMMORALITY ACTmade it a crime for any sexual act to be committed between a white person and any other racial group. Between 1950-1985, 24,000 people were prosecuted for this crime.THE GROUP AREAS ACTdivided South Africa into different areas where the different race groups could live. Of the 3.5 million people who had to leave their homes because of this act, only 2% were white.THE PASS LAWSmade it mandatory for blacks to carry pass books at all times, which allowed them to have permission to be in a white area for a limited amount of time. Without their pass, they were arrested

Human Rights ViolationSouth Africa used these 3 categories to give out benefits.It officially denied most blacks of decent housing, education, and health facilities.

How does apartheid compare to segregation in America?Why is this considered a human rights violation?22So, what happened?Armed movements fought apartheid for the next 45 years. International community opposed apartheid too.South Africa became isolated from the rest of the world, but apartheid continued on.Isolation made life very hard for the people of South Africa.23Life for Africans during ApartheidExtreme poverty and unemploymentUrbanization & TownshipsGangs and Violence

824Shanties-conditions are bad. Tensions are bad in urban areas.

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29Sharpeville Uprising

Man with Passbook

Rodden Island Prison

Checking Passbook

Soweto Uprising

Funeral and Protest

Separate Bathroom Facilities

The Struggle Against ApartheidRiotsThe Sharpeville Massacre (1960)The Rise of the ANC

9 The ANC was formed to work for equality in the country of South Africa.37People tired of Apartheid: People were separated by wall; armed guards.Influential group- African national congress- headed by Mandela; political partyANC- 1960. 5000-7000 people go to police station and we do not have our passes; go ahead and arrest us. National Army called in. 70 people killed. 18,000 people imprisoned after the massacre. Government statement that if you try to resist, you will be imprisoned. Sharpeville Massacre- (kind of like to Salt March, except it was violent-many were massacred and jailed. The government was not outnumbered this time. 69 black people were killed.

Prior to Sharpville, ANC was peaceful.Sharpeville Massacre

The government was outnumbered; 69 black people were killed.1960-A large group of blacks in the town of Sharpeville refused to carry their passes. 69 people die and 187 are wounded. The African political organizations, the ANC and the Pan-African Congress, are banned. 1962-The United Nations establishes the Special Committee Against Apartheid to support a political process of peaceful change, based on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.1963-1990-Nelson Mandela, head of the African National Congress is jailed for the third time. He expected the death penalty and so he gave a four hour long speech, saying what he thought would be his last words to the African community. He was sentenced to life in prison, first on Robben Island, doing intense labor. He then spent 27 years in Pollsmoor Prison, where he was placed in solitary confinement. 1970-Resistance to Apartheid increases. The all-black South African Students Organization, under the leadership of Stephen Biko, helps unify students through the Black Consciousness movement.THE UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS:

ADOPTED ON DECEMBER 10, 1948 BY THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY OF THE UNITED NATIONS AS GUIDELINES FOR HOW HUMAN BEINGS SHOULD BE TREATED ALL OVER THE WORLD