Smart Traffic Congestion Control System

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Transcript of Smart Traffic Congestion Control System

Smart Traffic Signal & Congestion

Control System

Waqas Ahmed, Syed Hasnain Ali, Muzzamil Shaikh, Zeeshan Shabir

Sukkur IBA, Pakistan


Nowadays congestion in traffic is a serious issue. The traffic congestion can also be caused by large Red light delays, etc. The delay of respective light is hard coded in the traffic light and it is not dependent on traffic. Therefore for simulating and optimizing traffic control to better accommodate this increasing demand is arises. In this project we discussed the optimization of traffic light controller in a Metropolitan City using microcontroller and Digital Display. The system tries to reduce possibilities of traffic jams, caused by traffic lights, to an extent and give ease to drivers to avoid congested path. The system is based on microcontroller, Zigbee, IR sensors and Digital Display. The microcontroller used in the system is 8051 Micro. Microcontroller also store vehicles count in its memory. Based on different vehicles count, the microcontroller takes decision and updates the traffic light delays as a result. If there is a traffic jamming on one road of the city. The traffic light will decide itself the timing based on the current traffic density. Also the driver will be informed through the Digital Display (installed at in the city few kilometers beyond the traffic light) to choose another way and avoid the congestion.

Keywords IR (infrared ) sensor, Microcontroller, ZigBee, Digital Display(LCD).


Studies have estimated that on a daily basis most of traffic congestion is because of the traffics light system. And Additional waste of time for public as a result of traffic congestion. The most of the congestion occur during early in the morning and late afternoon. Because the students and employers are going to their works and Universities so they also be late at traffic light spot. As the number of road users constantly increases, and resources provided by current infrastructures are limited, intelligent control of traffic will become a very important issue in the future. Avoiding traffic jams for example is thought to be beneficial to both environment and economy.

Our smart traffic light and congestion control system is designed to solve the traffic congestion problem in metropolitan cities of the country which will result in minimizing the economic and physiology cost associated with the traffic congestion problem in terms of the waste of energy (fuel) and time .As a country(Pakistan) whose GDP is 2.5% and whose most of the foreign reserves are spend on the importing the oil, cant afford to waste such an important resources , there is a need to manage the things so that we can utilize our resources in a proper manner effective and efficient , so that we can save our people money and time and let them use it in a fruitful manner.

Our new Smart Traffic light & Density Control

System Project:

We propose a new traffic Control System that will control the congestion problem of traffic through traffic signals on the basis of current traffic density.

The current traffic light system is fixed. It has fixed time interval to pass the traffic from either side of the road, which creates the congestion problem. Our Smart traffic control system solves this problem on real time basis. It will observe the traffic condition on lets say three different road connected with each other then it will take decision that which road is to open for certain period of time and which one is for shorter time.

We installed the IR transmitter on the opposite side of the road. The transmitter will be operated by the DC power source so we will convert the AC 110V to DC current hardly 5 volt.

That is continuously sending the signal to the IR receiver hang on the other side. The IR receiver is connected to Microcontroller Rx pin. So Microcontroller is getting high signal continuously as vehicle passes between the IR transmitter and receiver the receiver will detect it and send a low signal to Microcontroller. The Microcontroller will count this in memory.

We have defined three different conditions and based of these condition the Microcontroller will provide delay to the traffic signal.

Density ofNumber of VehicleTime IntervalTime IntervalTime IntervalVehicles

(in Seconds)(in Seconds)(in Seconds)




So as the vehicle density increases on the road the interval of green signal and red will change.

Now if there is very high traffic congestion on some roads. So we are also installing the Digital Display (LCD) at the distance of 1km away from the traffic light signal. SO the LCD will display the alternative best possible way to move. So the driver can avoid the congestion and take another possible road to move. So we have to main advantage for installing the Digital Display (i) Ease for driver to avoid the congested path and choose another possible path (ii) No more traffic will be on that congested path until the congestion problem is solved.

The LCD is directly connected to Microcontroller (this Microcontroller will only serve for LCD not for any more purpose). The Microcontroller is directly connected to the main server Microcontroller through wireless media. We prefer Zigbee to be used for wireless communication because Zigbee is so cheap, and it works on ISM band. So we dont need to buy the bandwidth from any third party (which is too costly).

The main Server microcontroller will communicate with the other microcontroller (Driving the Digital Display) and transmit the information of current traffic situation. As the traffic congestion occur so the LCD will display the another best possible path for other driver to avoid the congestion.

Innovative elements -- We highlight the innovative elements of our Smart traffic light

& Density control system relative to the state of the art: (i) The system automatically decide that which traffic signal should be GREEN for certain time defined by the density of traffic. (ii) The system continuously seeks to upgrade the assigned traffic light based on the latest data collected from IR sensors. (iii) The system ensures that which traffic light will be GREEN & RED, on the basis of density (Low,

Medium, High) defined by the user (iv)The system will inform the drivers (through Digital Display), using the road about the road clarity (v)The system will automatically choose another alternative path for drivers to avoid the congestion .Team Members and Audience:

We are 4 persons team, working on this project. Detailed of team members are as follows



Waqas Ahmed+92- [email protected] IEEEThirdSukkur

334- EngineeringMemberyearIBA


Hasnain Ali+92- [email protected] IBA

342- EngineeringMemberYear


Muzzamil+92- [email protected] EngineeringMemberYearIBA


Zeeshan+92-zeeshanshabbir10FinanceNon IEEEFinalSukkurshabbir333-



Project Audience

Junior or Senior College students, Graduate students, Public.

Project Implementation Details:

The implementation of this Smart Traffic Signal and congestion control system relies on four require-ments: (i) Real time traffic road conditions will be stored in the Microcontroller memory. (ii) Effective wireless communication between IR transceiver modules through ZigBee. (iii) Solve congestion problem by varying the time of traffic light signal on the basis of road density. (iv)Digital Display will display the current traffic condition of that road after some kilometer, and also display the alternative way for driver so the driver can easily choose the alternative path and avoid the traffic congestion.

The implementation details for each of these requirements are described in the following table.TaskActivityRequire MaterialTimeMajor Skill

VehicleDeploy IR receiver and transmitter onIR receiver and1 weekInstallationDetectionthe both side of roadstransmitter

VehicleMicrocontroller will count on basis ofMicrocontroller4-5Assembly, CCountdowndetection in its memory


Traffic signalInstall the traffic light signal andPoll, Bulbs, etc1 weekPractical work

connect it with microcontroller

Install the digital display fewDigital Display,3-4InterfacingDigital Displaykilometers beyond from traffic signalMicrocontroller,Weeks

which is keep on updating driversPower supply

about the current traffic condition.

WirelessWireless communication betweenZigbee Module3 weeksOutdoor wirelessCommunicationDigital Display and main server




System analysis

In Pakistan road transport accounts for 91 percent of passenger traffic and 96 per-cent of freight traffic. The country has a road network covering 259,758 km, with around 4.2 million on-road vehicles, and a road density of 0.32 km/sq km which is lower than the average density of 0.50 km per sq km in developing countries (Pakistan needs to develop 157,115 kms of roads to meet this deficiency). Pakistans economy had been growing at an average rate of 6-7% in last few years. The growth in the economy, increase in the population, expanding urban boundaries and markets for goods and services, and rising incomes of the middle class both in urban and rural areas; have contributed to an unprecedented increase in the road transport. The transport sector in Pakistan is dominated by the road transport as it c