Skeletal System: Day One Function, Bone Classification, and Bones of the Axial & Appendicular...

download Skeletal System: Day One Function, Bone Classification, and Bones of the Axial & Appendicular Skeleton

of 47

  • date post

    19-Jan-2016
  • Category

    Documents

  • view

    216
  • download

    3

Embed Size (px)

Transcript of Skeletal System: Day One Function, Bone Classification, and Bones of the Axial & Appendicular...

Slide 1

Skeletal System: Day OneFunction, Bone Classification,and Bones of the Axial & Appendicular SkeletonFunction of BonesSupportProtectionMovementSkeletal muscles attach to bones by tendonsStorageFat and Minerals (calcium and phosphorus)Blood Cell FormationBones give shape to the head, thorax, and limbs.Bones such as the pelvis and lower limbs provide support for the body.Bones of the skull protect the brain, ears, and eyes.

3CopyrightThe McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.Support and ProtectionBody Movement Bones can act as levers.4CopyrightThe McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Blood Cell Formation Blood cells begin to form through hematopoiesis in the yolk sac; they are later manufactured in bone marrow. Two kinds of marrow occupy the medullary cavities of bone. Red marrow functions in the formation of red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets, and is found in the spongy bone of the skull, ribs, sternum, clavicles, vertebrae, and pelvis. Yellow marrow, occupying the cavities of most bones, stores fat. 5CopyrightThe McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.Storage of Inorganic Salts The inorganic matrix of bone stores inorganic mineral salts in the form of calcium phosphate that is important in many metabolic processes.Calcium in bone is a reservoir for body calcium; when blood levels are low, osteoclasts release calcium from bone. Calcium is stored in bone under the influence of calcitonin when blood levels of calcium are high.Bone also stores magnesium, sodium, potassium, and carbonate ions.Bones can also accumulate harmful elements, such as lead, radium, and strontium 6CopyrightThe McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.Classification of Bones206 bones in adult skeletonClassified by shapeLongShortFlatIrregularTwo Basic Types:CompactSpongyClassification by ShapeLongLonger than wideShaft with head at both endsMade mostly of compact boneAll of the bones of the limbs are long bones except the wrist and ankle bones

Classification by ShapeShortCube-shapedMade mostly of spongy boneBones of the wrist and ankles

Classification by ShapeFlat BonesThin, flattened, and curvedTwo thin layers of compact bone, sandwiching a layer of spongy boneMost of the bones in the skull, the ribs, and sternum

Classification by ShapeIrregular All bones that are not long, short, or flatIncludes the vertebral and coxal (hip) bones

Two Types of BoneSpongy BoneSmall, needlelike pieces of bone with lots of open space.Compact BoneDense; smooth and homogenous

Axial SkeletonSkullCraniumFrontal, Parietal, Temporal, Occipital, Sphenoid, and Ethmoid BonesFacial BonesHyoid BoneVertebral Column (spine)Cervical Vertebrae (7)Throacic Vertebrae (12)Lumbar Vertebrae (5)SacrumCoccyxBony ThoraxSternumRibs12 pair ( True Ribs 7; False Ribs 5 (2 floating ribs) )

Fetal SkullDifferent from adult skullInfants face is very small compared to the size of its craniumSkull as a whole is large compared to the infants total body lengthAdult skull 1/8 of total body lengthFetal skull of total body lengthSome areas of hyaline cartilage still presentMembranes connecting cranial bones are called fontanelsSoft spotAllow brain to continue to growNo longer felt after 22-24 months

Appendicular SkeletonShoulder GirdleClavicle (long bone)Scapula (flat bone)Upper LimbHumerusRadius (thumb side)Ulna (pinky side)CarpalsMetacarpalsPhalangesPelvic GirdleCoxal bones: ilium, ischium, pubisLower Limb FemurTibia FibulaTarsalMetatarsalPhalanges

Male and Female PelvisDifferences in male and female pelvis aid in childbirthFemale inlet is larger and more circularFemale pelvis as a whole is shallower and the bones are lighter and thinnerFemale ilia flare more laterallyFemale sacrum is shorter and less curvedFemale ischial spines are shorter and further apartFemale pubic arch is more rounded because the angle of the pubic arch is greater