The Appendicular Skeleton. THE SKELETAL SYSTEM The Appendicular Skeleton 2 pairs of limbs and 2...

download The Appendicular Skeleton. THE SKELETAL SYSTEM The Appendicular Skeleton 2 pairs of limbs and 2 girdles Pectoral (shoulder) girdle attaches upper limbs

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Transcript of The Appendicular Skeleton. THE SKELETAL SYSTEM The Appendicular Skeleton 2 pairs of limbs and 2...

  • Slide 1
  • The Appendicular Skeleton
  • Slide 2
  • THE SKELETAL SYSTEM The Appendicular Skeleton 2 pairs of limbs and 2 girdles Pectoral (shoulder) girdle attaches upper limbs Pelvic (hip) girdle secures lower limbs 3-Segmented limbs Upper = arm Humerus Radius & Ulna Hand Lower = leg Femur Tibia & Fibula Foot
  • Slide 3
  • Pectoral Girdle (Shoulder Girdle) Clavicle anterior: collar bone Scapula posterior: shoulder blade
  • Slide 4
  • Scapulae: triangular, paired, but dont connect in back (adds thoracic flexibility)
  • Slide 5
  • Upper extremity Arm or Brachium = upper arm Between shoulder and elbow (humerus) Forearm or Antebrachium Radius & ulna Hand includes: Wrist (carpus) Palm (metacarpus) Fingers (phalanges)
  • Slide 6
  • Arm Humerus is the only bone Head of humerus fits into scapula Distal & medially, articulates with the ulna Distal & laterally articulates with the radius Arm
  • Slide 7
  • Right humerus, anterior view
  • Slide 8
  • Right humerus, posterior view
  • Slide 9
  • Forearm 2 bones: articulate with each other proximally and distally Interosseous membrane between them Ulna Olecranon process hinges with the humerus forming elbow Radius Contributes to wrist joint Styloid process anchors a ligament to wrist (thumb side) Radius is thinner proximally, like a spool of thread, and wide distally; ulna is slightly longer
  • Slide 10
  • Right forearm bones, anterior view
  • Slide 11
  • Right forearm bones, posterior view
  • Slide 12
  • In the anatomical position, the radius is lateral (thumb side); with pronation the palm faces posteriorly and the bones cross Left forearm Prone: Turning the hand so that the palm is down Suppine: Turning the hand so that the palm is up Anatomical position prone pronation moves the forearm into the prone position and supination moves it back to the anatomical position
  • Slide 13
  • proximal ulna Proximal and distal joints of the forearm
  • Slide 14
  • Hand Proximal is wrist 8 carpal bones Palm of hand - 5 metacarpals Fingers (or digits) consist of miniature long bones called phalanges: thumb (pollex) has 2; fingers have 3: proximal, middle, distal Right hand, 2 views:
  • Slide 15
  • Slide 16
  • Slide 17
  • Pelvic Girdle (Hip Girdle) Strongly attached to axial skeleton (sacrum) Deep sockets More stable than pectoral (shoulder) girdle Less freedom of movement Made up of the paired hip bones Bony pelvis is basin-like structure: hip bones plus the axial sacrum and coccyx
  • Slide 18
  • Hip bone (os coxae): 3 separate bones in childhood which fuse Ilium Ischium Pubis
  • Slide 19
  • Ilium Forms part of hip socket which receives ball- shaped head of femur ilium
  • Slide 20
  • Hip bones with labels
  • Slide 21
  • Pelvis and childbearing Male/female differences Large & heavy vs light & delicate Heart shaped pelvic inlet vs oval Narrow deep true pelvis vs wide & shallow Narrow outlet vs wide Less than 90 degree pubic arch vs more than 90 degree Birth canal changes shape as baby descends: head turns Higher: pelvic inlet (brim) - side to side largest Lower: pelvic outlet - largest in AP direction
  • Slide 22
  • Male vs. Female Pelvis
  • Slide 23
  • Lower limb Thigh: femur Leg (lower leg) Tibia Fibula Foot
  • Slide 24
  • Thigh Femur is largest, longest and strongest bone in the body Head fits in socket of pelvis Neck is weakest
  • Slide 25
  • Right femur, anterior view
  • Slide 26
  • Right femur, posterior view
  • Slide 27
  • Leg Tibia: shin bone Fibula Interosseous membrane
  • Slide 28
  • Right lower leg, anterior view
  • Slide 29
  • Slide 30
  • Foot Tarsus: 7 tarsal bones Talus: articulates with tibia and fibula anteriorly and calcaneus posteriorly Calcaneus: heel bone Smaller cuboid, navicular, and 3 cunieforms (medial, intermediate and lateral) 5 metatarsals 14 phalanges Great toe is hallux
  • Slide 31
  • Right foot, superior (dorsal) view and inferior (plantar) view
  • Slide 32
  • Right foot, lateral and medial views
  • Slide 33
  • Arches