SKELETAL SYSTEM 206 BONES MAKE UP THE HUMAN SKELETON.

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Transcript of SKELETAL SYSTEM 206 BONES MAKE UP THE HUMAN SKELETON.

  • SKELETAL SYSTEM 206 BONES MAKE UP THE HUMAN SKELETON

  • 2 TYPES OF BONE1.Compact bone- (hard, dense outer area) densely packed matrix of salts and collagen- nourishment provided to bone cells by blood vessels that extend through Haversian canals 2.Spongy bone not as densely packed- contain spaces that are filled with blood- called red marrowMatrix is deposited in thin, bony plates called spicules around the red marrow

  • 2 skeletonsAXIAL SKELETON- used mostly for protection- bones of the skull, vertebrae, ribs and sternum

    APPENDICULAR SKELETON-used mostly for support and movement- bones of the hip and legs, also the shoulder and arms

  • Bone tissueOSTEON or HAVERSIAN SYSTEM- complete ring consisting of osteocytes, lamallae and a central Haversian canal

  • BONE TISSUE Bone-osseous tissueOSTEOCYTE - Mature bone Cell located in LACUNAE- a hollow cavityLAMELLAE- Lacunae are arranged in concentric rings of calcium salts HAVERSIAN CANAL- (it consists of blood vessels and nerves)one central bullseye CANALICULI- tiny squiggly lines canals radiating outward from the central Haversian Canal- to all the lacunae in the osteon. This is how nourishment gets to each osteocyte.

  • Bone tissuePERFORATING VOLKMANNS CANALS- blood vessels that travel at right angles to the direction of the shaft go from the exterior of the bone to the interior and reach the Haversian canals

  • 4 TYPES OF BONES1.LONG BONE- longer than they are wide- have a shaft with heads at both ends- all the bones of the limbs (femur, humerus, ulna, etc)- made mostly of COMPACT bone

  • 4 TYPES OF BONES2. SHORT BONE- typically cube shaped- mostly SPONGY bone- bones of the wrist and ankle, patella

  • 4 TYPES OF BONES3.FLAT BONE- thin, flattened, and usually curved contain two thin layers of compact bone sandwiching a layer of spongy bone-

  • 4 TYPES OF BONES4.IRREGULAR BONE- bones that do not fit any of the above categories- (vertebrae, hip bones)

  • PARTS OF LONG BONEEPIPHYSES- the ends of the long bones- composed of a thin layer of compact bone surrounding spongy bone-DIAPHYSIS- the shaft of the bone- composed of compact bonePERIOSTEUM connective tissue covering of the shaft of the long bone that nourishes the boneENDOSTEUM- inner lining of the bone cavity

  • PARTS OF LONG BONE

    YELLOW MARROW-found in the MEDULLARY CAVITY- The cavity of the shaft is primarily a storage area of fat.RED MARROW - found in the cavities of spongy bone and the epiphyses of long bones(found in long bones in infants)

  • PARTS OF LONG BONEEPIPHYSEAL PLATE- flat plate of hyaline cartilage seen in young, growing bone. Cause the bone to grow length wise. This cartilage plate gets replaces by bone at the end of puberty and leaves only an EPIPHYSEAL LINE to mark their previous locationARTICULAR CARTILAGE- hyaline cartilage that covers the epiphyses- provides a smooth, slippery surface for a joint.

  • Functions of BONE (5)SupportProtection- (ex.- skull and ribcage)Movement- attachment places for muscles and used as leversStorage- Minerals- calcium and phosphorusFat- yellow bone marrow

  • Functions of BONE (5)5. HEMATOPOIESIS- the formation of blood cells (both RBC and WBC) occurs in the red bone marrow

  • BONE MARKINGSPROJECTIONS THAT HELP FORM JOINTSHeadFacetCondyleRamus

  • BONE MARKINGS-PROJECTIONS FOR MUSCLE AND LIGAMENT ATTACHMENT

    TuberosityCrestTrochanterLineTubercleSpineProcessEpicondyle

  • DEPRESSIONS AND OPENINGS FOR THE PASSAGE BLOOD VESSELS AND NERVES

    MeatusSinusFossaGrooveFissureForamen

  • AXIAL SKELETONSKULL- is formed by two sets of bones.CRANIUM BONES- 8 bones that enclose the brainFACIAL BONES- 15 bones of the face and jaw

    SUTURES- immovable joints between bones

  • Cranium

  • Cranium from superior view

  • Facial Bones from

  • MANDIBLE

  • FUSED VERTEBRAEFirst 5- Form the SACRUM

    Last 4 Form the COCCYX or tailbone

  • VERTEBRAL COLUMN33 SEPARATE BONES- 9 BONES WILL EVENTUALLY FUSE TOGETHER

    24 non fused vertebrae1ST 7 VERTEBRAE- CERVICAL (NECK)Next 12 VERTEBRAE- THORACIC (contains ribs)Last 5 VERTEBRAE- LUMBAR ( lower back)

  • TYPICAL VERTEBRAEBODY- large section for weight bearing

    VERTEBRAL FORAMEN- opening for spinal cordSPINOUS PROCESS- single spine at the posterior of the vertebrae

  • TYPICAL VERTEBRAEVERTEBRAL ARCH- the whole loop around the vertebral foramen- (consists of Lamina and Pedicle)

    TRANSVERSE PROCESS- lateral projections from the vertebral arch

  • TYPICAL VERTEBRAESUPERIOR ARTICULAR PROCESS- where it forms a joint with the vertebrae above

    INFERIOR ARTICULAR PROCESS-where it forms a joint with the vertebrae below

  • CERVICAL VERTEBRAE1st vertebrae- ATLAS- articulates with occipital condyles- (atlas has no BODY)- allows you to nod your head YES

    2nd vertebrae- AXIS- has a large superior process (ODONTOID PROCESS or DENS) which acts as a pivot- allows you to rotate your head NO

  • CERVICAL VERTEBRAE

  • THORACIC VERTEBRA

  • LUMBAR VERTEBRA

  • BONY THORAXthoracic cage around the lungs and heart. Includes 1.thoracic vertebrae2.ribs3.sternum

  • RIBS- 12 pairs attach to the thoracic vertebra 7 pairs of TRUE RIBS which attach directly to the sternum by COSTAL CARTILAGE

    5 pairs of FALSE RIBS- which attach indirectly or not at all to the Sternum

    1 pair of FLOATING RIBS- which are the last set of false ribs which lack any attachment to the sternum

  • STERNUMSTERNUM- flat bone that is attached to the first 7 ribs. The result of the fusion of three bones1.MANUBRIUM (top)2.BODY(middle)3.XIPHOID PROCESS (point on bottom)

  • 3 LANDMARKS OF THE STERNUM1. JUGULAR NOTCH- concave upper border of the manubrium2STERNAL ANGLE- fusion of the manubrium and the body. Meets at a slight angle. Located at the second rib and is a reference point 3. XIPHISTERNAL JOINT- point where the sternal body and xiphoid process fuse- located at the 9th thoracic vertebrae

  • SPINE CURVATURESSCOLIOSIS- spine is out of alignment longitudinally S shaped

    KYPHOSIS- extreme curvature of thoracic vertebrae hunchback

    LORDOSIS- extreme curvature of lumbar vertebrae

  • ProblemsRICKETS- disease in children in which bones fail to calcify. Rickets is typically due to lack of calcium in the diet or lack of vitamin D which is needed for bone absorption

    OSTEOPOROSIS- disease typically of older women- where bone tissue breaks down faster than new bone tissue is built up

  • TYPES OF FRACTURES

  • Common Types of Fractures

    SIMPLE /CLOSED- fracture that does not break the skin

    COMPOUND / OPEN- fracture that breaks through the skin

  • TYPES OF FRACTURES

  • Types of reductionsCLOSED REDUCTION- putting the bone back in alignment without surgery

    OPEN REDUCTION- surgery is needed to hold the bones in place with pins / wires

  • Other Types of FracturesCOMMINUTED- bone breaks into many fragments. Common in elderly (osteoporosis). Causes- car crashes, major accidents

    COMPRESSION- bone is crushed. Common in elderly (osteoporosis) and Vertebrae. Usually from falling from serious heights

    DEPRESSED- bone broken inwards- Skull fracture due to blunt force trauma

  • TYPES OF FRACTURES

  • Other Types of FracturesIMPACTED- broken bone ends forced against each other- Common in falls from large heights

    SPIRAL- ragged break occurs from excessive twisting. Common sports injury

    GREENSTICK- bone breaks incompletely- common in childrens bones which are more flexible

  • OSSIFICATION- the formation of bone tissue (Pg 121)OSSIFICATION- involves 2 types- lengthening and widening OSTEOBLASTS- bone-forming cells -form the bone matrixOSTEOCLASTS- bone destroying cells break down old bone

  • Widening- Osteoblasts in the periosteum add bone tissue to the external surface of the bone while OSTEOCLASTS break down bone from the inner surface of the diaphysis wall. (endosteum)

  • Lengthening-Epiphyseal plates account lengthening.

    1. New cartilage is formed continuously on the external surface of the epiphyseal plateInternal surface of epiphyseal plate is being broken down and turned to bony matrix by osteoblasts.When the osteoblasts catch up and turn all the epiphyseal plate to bone- growth stops.

  • REMODELING- bones are living and constantly changingDue to:CALCIUM levels in the blood, PARATHYROID HORMONE breaks down bone when its needed for calcium in the blood. CALCITONIN- (made in the thyroid) lowers calcium levels in the blood by producing more bone (storage)2. Stresses by muscle pull and gravity determine where bone matrix is broken down or formed (larger projections for increased muscle mass)

  • OSSIFICATION- Page 121

    In embryos, the skeleton is primarily made of HYALINE CARTILAGE which acts as a model. 2. A Bony Matrix of OSTEOBLASTS made by the PERIOSTEUM, completely surrounds the hyaline cartilage along the diaphysis. BONY COLLAR STAGE

    3. PRIMARY OSSIFICATION- blood vessel penetrates to center of diaphysis where osteoblasts turn hyaline cartilage to bone

  • 4. SECONDARY OSSIFICATION- blood vessels penetrate epiphysis where osteoblasts turn hyaline cartilage to spongy bone 5. Center of diaphysis (endosteum) is then eaten away by osteoclasts creating the Medullary cavity. (The hyaline cartilage is replaced by bone by the time you are a young child except for Articular Cartilage (which will never turn to bone) and th