Self Actualization-report

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Self ActualizationOne day shortly after the bombing of Pearl Harbor, at age 33, Abe Maslow witnessed apathetic and beggarly civilian paradeone that seemed to emphasize the futility and tragic waste of war. With tears streaming down his face, he made a firm vow: to prove that the human race is capable of something grander than hate and destructiveness, and to do so by studying the psychologically healthiest people that he could find (M. H. Hall, 1968).

SelfSelf-ActualizationFulfilling ones own innate potentials; the highest and most pleasurable need, but also the most difficult to recognize and satisfy. A growth motive, similar to actualization in Rogerian theory. y The final level of psychological development that can be achieved when all basic and mental needs are fulfilled and the "actualization" of the full personal potential takes place.y

Criteria for Self-Actualization SelfThey are free from psychopathology y Self-actualizing people should progressed through the hierarchy of needs. y Embracing of the B-values. y Has fulfilled their needs to grow, to develop, and to become increasingly become what they are capable of becoming.y

Values of Self-Actualizers Selfy

Maslow (1971) held that self-actualizing people are motivated by eternal verities what he called the B-values. These being values are indicators of psychological health and are opposed to deficiency needs, which motivate non-self actualizers.

The 14 B-Values B-

B-ValuesAbsence of B-values leads to pathology y Deprivation of any of the B-values results in metapathology or lack of a meaningful philosophy of life.y

Characteristics of Self-actualizing SelfPeopleMore accurate perception of reality. Self-actualizing people are more free of unwarranted optimism, pessimism, and other defensive distortions of reality. They are able to evaluate people and events with considerable accuracy.

Characteristics of Self-actualizing SelfPeopleGreater Acceptance of Self and Others. Self-actualizers are more tolerant of human weaknesses. They avoid judging other people or themselves, although they may experience some guilt about any personal deficiencies that they have been unable to overcome.

Greater Spontaneity and Self-Knowledge. Self-actualizing individuals behave more spontaneously because they better understand their true motives, emotions, and abilities. They are guided primarily by their own code of ethics, which often makes them feel like aliens in a foreign landand makes them difficult for other people to understand.

Greater Problem Centering. Self-actualizers tend to have a consuming mission in life that occupies much of their time and energy. They are keenly interested in external problems and do not care much about introspection. They have a devotion to excellence, combined with a lack of worry about minor details that makes life easier for themselves and their associates.

Greater Need for Privacy. Self-actualizers prefer a greater amount of privacy and solitude. This healthy detachment is due in part to their tendency to rely on their own feelings and values. Yet it is often resented by those who mistake it for snobbishness, unfriendliness, or hostility.

Greater Autonomy and Resistance to Enculturation. Self-actualizers are motivated by the need to fulfill their own inner potentials, rather than by a desire for external rewards or possessions. Since their needs for love and esteem are largely satisfied, they are less likely to manipulate others for selfish purposes. Self-actualizers are less indoctrinated by the prevailing standards of the imperfect society in which they live, and they avoid popular styles of dress or forms of entertainment that run counter to their personal criteria.

Greater Freshness of Appreciation and Richness of Emotional Response. Any goal that we may achieve, such as job success, marriage, or a new car, is all too easily taken for granted once the novelty has worn off. Self-actualizers live richer and more fulfilling lives because they cherish those blessings that they have received.

Greater Frequency of Peak Experiences. Most self-actualizing individuals have had mystical moments of absolute perfection, during which the self is lost in feelings of sublime ecstasy, wonder, and awe.

Greater Social Interest. Like Adler, Maslow regards Gemeinschaftsgefhl as typical of the mature individual. Self-actualizers strongly identify with the human species, and have a genuine sympathy for and desire to help others. If they do express hostility or anger, it is usually both well deserved and for the good of some third party.

Deeper, More Loving Interpersonal Relationships. Self-actualizing people prefer intimate relationships with a few close friends. rather than superficial contacts with many people. Their love is nonpossessive (Blove), and they are proud of rather than threatened by a loved ones achievements.

More Democratic Character Structure. Self-actualizers befriend people of all classes, races, and ethnic groups, and often seem virtually unaware of such differences. They strongly and effectively oppose injustice, cruelty, and the exploitation of others.

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Greater Discrimination Between Good and Evil. Self-actualizing individuals have strong moral and ethical standards, and rarely vacillate as to the course of action they consider right or wrong. They accept the responsibility for their actions, rather than rationalizingor trying to blame their errors on other people.

More Unusual Sense of Humor. Most self-actualizers prefer humor that is philosophical and instructive. They dislike humor based on hostility or superiority, such as ethnic or insult jokes.

Greater Creativity. Every self-actualizing person demonstrates a fresh and creative approach to life, a virtue by no means limited to the artist or genius. A self-actualizing homemaker may devise novel ways of preparing and serving the family meals, thereby turning the dinner table into a visual and culinary delight.

Measuring Self-Actualization SelfPersonal Orientation Inventory 150 forced-choiced items y Brief Index of Self-Actualization 40 items 6 point Likert Scaley

Pathological Symptomsguilt, shame, and/or anxiety. y apathy and hopelessness. y faulty conception of oneself and the environment. y an excessive dependency on other y a fear of knowledge of oneself and others, resulting in the use y a steadfast adherence to the familiar and routine,y

PsychopathologyCauses of Psychopathology. y According to Maslow, the primary cause of psychopathology is the failure to gratify our fundamental needs: physiological, safety, love, esteem, and self-actualization. Maslow regards psychopathology as a difference in degree rather than kind.

PsychotherapyLike Rogers, Maslows therapeutic goal is to help patients regain the path toward self-actualization and fulfill their own unique potentials. (Embracing of B-values). y Psychotherapy is interpersonal in nature.y