School Facilities & Learning Designs

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  • 1. Planning, Programming, and Design of Educational Learning Environments - Omar M. Adra - Fida Merhi - Jana Bou Reslan School Facilities SLU (June 2014)

2. Planning, Programming, And Design of educational Learning Environments 3. Planning and Programming Lead the school system to make an agreement with an architectural firm to complete design and construction. Involve many stakeholders through communication. Are interchangeable yet separate as planning integrates community needs & programming to influence design. 4. Programming A verbal and symbolic description and explanation of all activities the learning environment is expected to facilitate. Dependent on planning To avoid the reality check (demanded resources# available ones planning and programming for a capital project is needed. 5. Cookie Cutter Schools Contribution from students, the community, educational professionals, planning and design professionals (active consumers) Sanoff (2000). Awareness, perception, decision making are included while learning from each other. School is a community owned& concern. Ongoing or periodic process 6. Approach to the Investigation The Guide for School Facility Appraisal & Assessment scales provide approximate measures of the school environment which: a. Enhances learning and teaching b. Serves the community c. Involves all stakeholders d. Pertains safety, health, and security e. Uses all resources effectively f. Allows for flexibility and adaptability to changing needs 7. Phases in Planning Five Participatory Design Principles: No best solution Expert decisions are not always better than lay ones Milestones should be discussed Open forum Continuous and ever-changing process 8. I. Determine the Principles and Values of the Community a. What is to be learned? b. How does learning occur? ( Behaviorist, Constructivist theories) Flexible block learning to meet curriculum, students needs, and overcome discipline problems. 9. II. Develop a Purpose Perceptions= reality so the learning environment should serve as a center of the community Partnership between all stakeholders= civic & learning activities School = hub = an inviting place= user friendly Fosters a relationship between school and community 10. III. Examine the context Internal scan of the political, economic, social, demographical, multicultural influence Population forecast, demographic analysis, financial information leads to shaping the context, specification of space needs and capacity This reveals the possibility of new types of sts., demands on programs and facilities. 11. IV. Specify what is realistic Planner Interprets the information in light of political and economic possibilities Has excellent leadership skills, special characteristics to overcome roadblocks and avoid surprise 12. V. Envision Alternative School Environment Future school a. preparing sts. To be productive, ethical, and effective members b. Curriculum through block scheduling c. Partners will have more voice d. Space for life e. Teaching values f. Tech based activities 13. VI. Select the best alternative Cost benefit analyses Implementation of feasible solutions Looking for benefits over a specific period of time Choosing the best alternative Going from words to spaces to places 14. VII: Program the best alternative Specify the physical environment (bubble diagrams, scaled drawings, computer aides design programs) Include indoor and outdoor space, equipment, furniture, storage, technology, other considerations Considered a pre design phase 15. VIII. Complete final Design and Preconstruction Activities Translation of planning programming, and sketching into design. Form should follow function 16. IX & X: Construct &Occupy the facility No straightforward milestones Guidelines depending on the context, legal and environmental issues 17. Link with previous material Recap.: two underlying principles 1- Establish principles and values surrounding the learning environment 2- Know the educational purposes for the physical environments NB: If decision has been made to construct a new school, the model described here can serve as a facilitator for the planning process 18. Milestones: Not written in stone TWO important notes: A- Milestones not necessarily implemented in a linear fashion presented thereafter B- There is no precise set of milestones that fit all planning problems; still, the following provide a sound direction for realistic involvement in developing educational learning environments (Tanner & Lackney, 2006) 19. Basic Milestones in Planning Capital Projects: Estimated time/responsibility 1- begin the planning process (1m./ superintendent) 2- forecast student enrolment (2m./research unit) 3- determine educational feasibility (2m./facilities director) 4- establish architectural feasibility (2m./facilities director) 5- prioritize needs (1m./school board & superintendent) 20. Basic milestones (continued) 6- adopt findings of the needs assessment (1m./school board) 7- choose to build a new school or renovate existing ones (1m./school board) 8- develop capital budget estimates (2m./director of finance) 9-acquire financing for the project (4m./school board and superintendent) 10- appoint the schools principal (1m./school board) 11- select an architectural firm (2m./school board upon recommendation by superintendent) 21. Basic milestones: Needs and Estimates 12- design the school (6m./school principal, educators, community, and architect) 13- stipulate the needed school furniture (2m./school principal, educators, community, and architect) 14- select the construction manager (1m./superintendent, facilities director) 15- schedule the project (1m./ school officials and architect) 16- obtain 35% cost estimates (2m./ architect and facilities director) 17- prepare final construction documents (2m./architect and facilities director) 18- secure financial cost estimates (3m./architect) 22. Basic premises: advertising and receiving bids 19- advertise bids for construction (3m./school board and superintendent) 20- receive bids for construction (1m./school board and superintendent) 21- award construction contract (1m./school board and superintendent) 22- obtain permits to begin construction (1m./superintendent and facilities director) 23- advertise bids for school furniture (1m./ school board and superintendent) 24-receive bids for furniture (1m./school board and superintendent) 23. Basic milestones: Construction 25- construct the school (18 m./ general contractor) 26- monitor construction program (18m./ construction manager, school principal, an facilities director) 24. Basic premises: following construction 27- install school furniture (1m./ vendors, school principal and facilities director) 28- complete punch list (a detailed checklist regarding mechanical devices) / verify performance (1m./principal, construction manager and general contractor) 29- accept the school (1m./school board) 30- orient staff and community to building (1m./school principal) 31- evaluate the school planning, design and construction process (1m./ school principal, community, facilities director and superintendent) 32- complete warranty inspection (1m./construction manager) 25. Architectural design: The basic premise Meeting the communitys needs and expectations for a school facility for many years to come can occur when school designs are based on the outcomes of an effective, multi-stakeholder planning process 26. Architectural design: Common Steps Although these might differ depending on the district, there are several steps that commonly occur during the architectural design phase: An architectural firm is chosen to prepare drawings this firm is also involved in the planning stage and programming activities A set of guidelines has been developed by the AIA for choosing an architect based on the firms qualifications 27. QBS Qualification Based Selection Recognizes the architect as playing a critical role in the design and construction of public school facilities; includes the following steps: 1- developing a preliminary scope of work statement 2- determining a schedule of activities 3- compiling a list of architectural firms 4- receiving statements of qualifications 5- determining short list of 3-5 architects 6- informing all architectural firms 7- arranging a tour for the short-listed ones 8- conducted interviews with the short-listed 9- informing the short-listed of the interviews results 10- negotiating contract with the selected architect 28. Basic Design Services Basic design services provided by the architectural firm include: A- schematic design B- design development C- construction document and specifications D- bidding and negotiations E- construction administration 29. Involving the Outside Community The use of a variety of highly skilled professionals is of great importance in the design process HOWEVER Involving the outside community in the early stages of the design process is of importance too; this will reap several benefits: 1- positive community spirit 2- better overall school building Note: such process may be time-consuming; care needs to be taken while developing methods of involving them 30. The Relationship Between Planning and Design Activities 31. The Architectural Design Process Selecting an Architect Basic Design Services Construction Documents and Specifications Bidding and Negotiation Construction Administration Community Involvement in Design 32. Applications of School Design Principles (Animoto video) 33. 1- Fearn Elementary School, North Aurora, Illinois 34. Fearn Elementary School, North Aurora, Illinois 35. 2- Davidson Elementary School Davidson, North Carolina 36. Davidson Elementary School 37. Fearn & Davidson commonalities