Rogers (1902-1987). Human Nature RogersFreud Humans are inherently good Humans are inherently...

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Transcript of Rogers (1902-1987). Human Nature RogersFreud Humans are inherently good Humans are inherently...

  • Rogers (1902-1987)

  • Human Nature

    RogersFreud Humans are inherently good Humans are inherently destructive Control not needed Society must control humans Negative actions come from fear and defensiveness, but are not natural Negative actions are to be expected

  • Early InsightsPsychoanalytic approach often failedAuthorities disagreed about what was the best treatmentClient usually knew whats wrong, far better than the therapistLooking at the present circumstances of the client often provided more relevant information than the past

  • Self-actualizationThe force for growth and development that is innate in all organisms Master motive, with all other biological drives subsumed under it the forward thrust of life

    Fulfilling that motive provides a source of energy

  • organismic valuing processinner sense within a person which guides him or her in the directions of growth and healththe inner vague feeling that choosing a certain career, or a certain love partner, would be wrong for you, even if everyone else approves of that choice

    Definition:Examples:

  • Phenomenological RealityA persons subjective world

    Experience All of the events of which a person could be aware

    AwarenessEvents that have been symbolized and have therefore entered consciousness

    phenomenological field

  • The SelfBabies born with undifferentiated phenomenological fieldOver time a self develops, in which child sees themselves as separate from other events

  • Need for positive regard:wanting to feel prized by people important to person

    Conditions of worth:the expectations that a person must live up to before receiving respect and love

  • Need for self-regard:wanting to feel good about themselvesUnconditional positive regard:accepting and valuing a person without requiring particular behaviors as a prerequisiteBeing accepted and loved even if your grades are low, your weight is wrong, and your attitude is questionable

    Examples:

  • IncongruencyFailure to use organismic valuing process to guide behavior and evaluate experiencesIntrojected valuesConditions of worth that have replaced the organismic valuing process

    Incongruence is the cause of all human adjustment problems.

  • Results of IncongruencySubception detection of an experience before it enters consciousnessAnxietyPerson subduces that a new experience is incompatible with his/her perceived selfDefenseEditing of experiences to make consistent with self-structure, by either denial or distortion

  • Goal of therapyReduce incongruencies

    Develop positive self-regard

  • Necessary and Sufficient Conditions for Therapeutic ProgressPsychological contactThe client is in a state of incongruenceThe therapist is congruent or integrated in the relationshipThe therapist shows unconditional positive regard for the client.The therapist experiences an empathic understanding of the clients internal frame of reference

  • Results of successful therapyClient expresses feelings with increasing freedomClient becomes more accurate in describing experiencesClient detects incongruencies, and can work through them with unconditional positive regard Concepts of self are reorganizedSelf-structure begins to agree with experiencesClients feel increasing amount of positive self-regard

  • Q-sort techniqueSelf-sort real selfIdeal-sort ideal self

    After therapy:Real self matches ideal self

  • People nurture others' growth in these ways:(applies to therapists, friends, family, etc.)being genuine (open with feelings; self-disclosing)being accepting (offering unconditional positive regard)being empathic (sharing and mirroring our feelings; reflecting our meanings)

  • The Fully Functioning Person

    (Rogerss term for a mentally healthy person)

  • Openness to ExperienceFree to explore new options

  • CreativitySpontaneity to new experiences

  • Organismic TrustingTrust their inner feelingsUsed as basis for how to judge self

  • Positive Self-Regardunconditional

  • Peace with OthersReciprocal unconditional positive regard

  • Humanistic Educationperson-centered facilitator of education (not "teacher")pays attention to feelings as well as the intellect

  • Businessrelationships based on genuineness, acceptance, and empathic understandinginstead of traditional authorityshared power and decision making

  • Criticisms of Rogerss TheoryOverly optimistic about human natureFailure to credit influences of other theoristsSome aspects of personality not discussed

    *No economic problems growing up, family close, religious and hard-workingClassmate, ernest hemingway and children of frank lloyd wrightMoved to farm when 12, interested in science and how to apply it to farmWent to china in church group for six months in college, had important influence, decided to become independent of parents conservatism,

    Main idea all humans have innate need to survive, grow, and become better (get more complex, enhance themselves)This is not true for other nonhuman animalsHumans are basically good, do not need to be controlled by anything (unlike Freuds idea that culture has to control our base needs and drives)*Intern at child center*One master motiveNegative actions people take result from fear and defensiveness*Choices not in line with valuing process are not satisfying, while those in line with it are satisfying*Review: tendency to actualize, which for Rogers meant becoming more complex (more individuated, different from each other, more me; ex. difference between myself and other things), more independent (), and more socially responsible ()

    fi nom uh nil log i kuhl phe nom e nol log i cal phe nom e no log i cal phenomenologicalfi nom uh nol uh gee phe nom e nol o gy phe nom e nol o gy phenomenology

    Phenomenology (phe nom e nol o gy ) refers to idea that we can only know what we ourselves see and perceive, and this is the only thing we can be certain of, the only reality that anyone can havei.e., A persons subjective world

    Experience All of the events of which a person could be awareAwarenessEvents that have been symbolized and have therefore entered consciousness They become part of phenomenological fieldPeople sometimes have trouble b/c they distort an experience when they are making it part of their conscious awareness*The self: Babies born with undifferentiated phenomenological field (which means they do not know difference b/t individual events, themselves and others)Over time a self develops, in which child sees themselves as separate from other events This is what Rogers means by when he talks about the part of self-actualizing where humans have a tendency to become more differentiated, more complex*Pos regard warmth, love, sympathy, care, respect, acceptance

    Conditions of worth sometimes parents make getting pos regard conditional, depending on their behaviorChild eventually internalizes con of worth, becomes their conscience, which guides their behavior*Self-regard depends on those ideas that they have internalized from othersProblem here is that they are guided by others opinions, NOT by their own organismic valuing processProblem called incongruence*If you detect (subceive) an event that could threaten your self-structure, you feel anxiety

    For example, say your self-perception is that you are a poor student, an event occurs ( you get a good grade), which contradicts your self-image, so may deny the event by saying that you were simply lucky*Reduce incongruencies in other words, change self-image, change conditions of worth*Table 14.2 (text, page 425). From Rogers (1957).*Client expresses feelings with increasing freedomClient becomes more accurate in describing experiencesClient detects incongruencies, and can work through them with unconditional positive regard Concepts of self are reorganizedSelf-structure begins to agree with experiencesClients feel increasing amount of positive self-regard

    *Cards say:I am intelligentI put on a false frontI despise myselfI express my emotions freely*Empathetic living other persons life without judgement, go into their inner world*No defensiveness, they will perceive experiences accurately

    *Instead of acting according to preconceptions of how they should act in that experience