Relaxa English beginers
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Transcript of Relaxa English beginers
in ENGLISHSECOND EDITION
by Jean Yates, M.A.
BARRON'S EDUCATIONAL SERIES, INC.
Library ofCongressCatalogCardNo. 2004050227
Acknowledgement:The quotationfromMY FAIR LADY on page40,
bypermissionof theEstateof AlanJay Lerner 1956byAlanJayLernerandFrederickLoewe.
PART ONE: ENGLish VowEl SOUNds Unit1
TheSoundliy I 115
TheSoundI AI 218
TheSoundI oiyI 3211
TheSoundI eiyI 3913
TheSoundI al 5217
TheSoundI aiyI 56
PART Two: ENGLish CONSONANTSOUNds 18
TheSoundsIt/, Idl 6720
TheSounds/k/, Igl 7721
TheSoundsIf I, Iv I 8422
TheSoundsI chi,I jl 9023
TheSoundsIsh/, Izhl 9424
TheSoundsIs/, Izl 9825
TheSoundsIm/, In/, IIJI 11627
TheSoundsIw/, Iyl 13530
Pronounceit perfectlyin English/ byJeanYates- 2nded.
p. em.ISBN 0-7641-2817-5(book:alk.paper)-ISBN 0-7641-7749-4(book/4CDs)1.Englishlanguage-Pronunciation-Problems,
All rightsreserved.No partof thisbook maybe reproducedin anyform byphotostat,microfilm,xerography,or anyothermeans,or incorporatedintoanyinformationretrievalsystem,electronicor mechanical,withoutthewrittenpermissionof thecopyrightowner.
31 Syllables and Stress I . - , < 145 -. , .. . 32 TwoSylIable Words - - - ' -'I46
33 Words with Three or ~ore:$dables 154 _ 34 OneSyllable Prefixes 159 35 Two-Syllable Prefixes* 161 - 36 Suffixes .=I63 37 Sentence Stress 169
38 Greetings 39 Statements 40 Questions 41 Counting and Listing 44 Options
More Words to Practice Pronunciation Differences When the Letter a Is Added to a OneSyIlable Word
CD 1 TRACK 1
-- Tbe god of "perfect pronunciation" i s not to take your
k so that people listen to what you 7, not how you say it. The god is to be understood the
ething, and to be confident and
This book and tape are designed 'to help you pro- nounce English words, phrases, and sentences correctly,
e materials are organized to help you get through maze of English spelling so that you will h o w how to
glish spelling reflects the his- how they are pronounced. ,
spelling of the vowel sounds, in particular, is an unre- e guide to their pronunciation. Also, many vowel and
they are simply not pro-
recede them, and these nges are not reflected in the spelling. Native speakers not even notice these changes, but make them autm tically. You wilI learn to do the same thing.
Appendix. Each sound is considered separately, by ere are instructions and
grams to show you how the sound i s made. Examples given of the sound in all possible positions in a word
phrase, and examples are given of all possible spellings the sound. The unique stress and intonation patterns English, which often carry meaning, are described in tail, with examples for practice. The CDs include all of
theseexamples,modeledby nativespeakers,with pausesprovidedso thatyou canrepeatthem.The book and CDsalso include exercises,quizzes,and practicematerialstohelp you makesure you are hearing and producing thesoundscorrectly.
As the pronunciation of grammaticalmarkersis vitalfor understanding, there are sections entitled "UsageTips" throughoutthematerials.Payparticularattentiontothesesections.If youarea beginner,or havetroublemak-ing yourselfunderstood,do thesesectionsfirst, and con-tinueto practicethem.
Do not be discouragedif at first you do not hear thedifferences in sounds. You can train yourself to hearthem. Follow the instructions for making the sounds;checkyourselfby looking in the mirror; tape-recordyourvoice.Practicemakingthe differencesandyou will beginto hearthem.
The book and CDs arecoordinatedso thatyou canusethemseparatelyor together.To improveyourunderstand-ing of English spelling and your recognition of writtenwords,listen to the CDs while looking at the wordsandsentencesin the book. When you listen to the recordingwithoutthe book, simplyrepeatthe examplesduring thepausesprovidedfor writing,and do the writtenexerciseslater.
The symbolsusedto representeachsoundarebasedonthose of the International Phonetic Alphabet. BecausemanyEnglish vowelsoundsare combinationsof sounds,they are representedhere by combinationsof symbols.This is intendedto help the learnerform thesesoundsbycombiningtheir individualparts.
The pronunciation symbols used by The AmericanHeritageDictionary, The RandomHouseDictionary, TheMerriam-WebsterDictionary, The OxfordDictionary,andLongman'sDictionaryappearbelow,so that you mayusethisbook asa pronunciationguidefor anynewwordyoulook up in yourowndictionary.
Guide to Symbols
Barron's I longman's I Random
g geotau ggg2
I I 1i1i3
iy iY eeee5
A A iiuii'g8
td t dtdt dt dtd20
s z s zs zs zs zs z25
mnl]mnT]m n ngm n ngm n ngmnl)27
Every vowelsoundrepresentsasyllablein aword.
Syllablesare either emphasizedand "stressed,"orweakand "unstressed."
There are 17differentvowelsoundsin English.
They all have "voice,"which occurs as the vocalcordsvibrate.
The tongue does not touch other parts of themouth,teeth,or lips.
The vowelsoundsdiffer by
thelengthof timethe soundis heldThe vowelsoundsareorderedin thisbook accord-
ing to howopen themouthis.The firstsound,jaj, ismadewith the mouth almostclosed.As the lessons
progress, the mouth gradually opens. The finalsound,jaiyj, is madewith the mouthwideopen.
To pronounce each vowelcorrectly,follow thesesteps:
Look in the mirror.
Count to two,silently,for long sounds.
TilE SOUNd lal
Introducing the SoundWebeginwiththevowelsoundjaj forseveralreasons: it is the mostcommonvowelsound in English;
mostwordsof morethanonesyllablecontainthissoundin thesofter,or unstressed,syllable,
many one-syllablewords are pronounced withthissound,
it canbe spelledwithanyof thefivevowelletters,and alsowith combinationsof letters,
it is an importantsoundfor certaingrammaticalmarkers(seepages73,105,146),
nativespeakersautomaticallyknowwhen to pro-nounce thissound,withoutbeingtold whyor inwhatcircumstances,
pronouncingthisvowelsoundcorrectlyis one ofthemostimportantskillsnecessaryfor clearcom-munication.
The sound jaj is easyto pronounce.To makeit,simply open your mouth very slightly,and make anoise.It doesnot sound like a formed vowel,and it
isn't.The lips and tonguearerelaxed,and thevoicemakesa short,softnoise.(SeeFigure 1.)
lal in Unstressed Syllables
Figure 1.The sound /;)/
4 PRONOUNCE IT PERfECTLy iN ENGLisll UNiT ONE: TilE SOUNd lal 5
EXAMPLES __ . - . - -
The consonant-vowelsequencek,especiallyat theend of a word, is usuallypronounced ~l. Listen tothe following examples,and repeatthem after thespeaker.
However,it takesa lot of practiceto knowwhen tousethissound.As it canbe spelledin somanydiffer-ent ways,we have printed in light blue italicsthelettersthat are pronounced with this sound in theExamples and Exercise sections throughout thisbook. This w,illidentify the sound while preservingthe correct s'pellingof the words.When you see avowelideptifiedthisway,pronounceit assoftlyandasquicklyasyoucan,givingit no emphasis.
Listen to thefollowingexamplesof wordswith thesound /a/ in unstressedsyllablesand repeatthemafterthe speaker.
/;}/ in first /;}/ in othersyllable
/a/ in secondsyllablesyllablesa-go
EXAMPLES . ' ._
In additionto beingspelledbyall thevowellettersand combinationsof letters,the /a/ sound can alsobe pronouncedwhen thereis no vowelat all. Listento thefollowingexamples,andrepeatthemafterthespeaker.