Relaxa English beginers

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Transcript of Relaxa English beginers

  • in ENGLISHSECOND EDITION

    by Jean Yates, M.A.

    GeorgetownUniversity

    BARRON'S EDUCATIONAL SERIES, INC.

  • Copyright2005,1995byBarron'sEducationalSeries,Ine.

    Library ofCongressCatalogCardNo. 2004050227

    InternationalStandardBookNo.

    0-7641-2817-5(bookonly),0-7641-7749-4(full package)

    Acknowledgement:The quotationfromMY FAIR LADY on page40,

    bypermissionof theEstateof AlanJay Lerner 1956byAlanJayLernerandFrederickLoewe.

    CONTENTS

    Introduction

    v

    PART ONE: ENGLish VowEl SOUNds Unit1

    TheSoundlal 32

    TheSound/II 73

    TheSoundlul 94

    TheSoundliy I 115

    TheSoundluwI 156

    TheSoundliuwI 187

    TheSoundI AI 218

    TheSoundlei 249

    TheSoundlowI 2810

    TheSoundI oiyI 3211

    TheSoundleal 3412

    TheSoundI eiyI 3913

    TheSound1-;)1 4214

    TheSoundlrel 4615

    TheSoundlreowI 5016

    TheSoundI al 5217

    TheSoundI aiyI 56

    PART Two: ENGLish CONSONANTSOUNds 18

    TheSounds/p/,/bl 6119

    TheSoundsIt/, Idl 6720

    TheSounds/k/, Igl 7721

    TheSoundsIf I, Iv I 8422

    TheSoundsI chi,I jl 9023

    TheSoundsIsh/, Izhl 9424

    TheSoundsIs/, Izl 9825

    TheSounds11/,Irl 10926

    TheSoundsIm/, In/, IIJI 11627

    TheSounds18/,/01 12728

    TheSoundIhl 13329

    TheSoundsIw/, Iyl 13530

    DoubleConsonants 141

    2004050227PEI137.Y3820044~8.S1'3-dc22

    PR'.1EDI~ CHINA9S/6543~

    All inquiriesshouldbeaddressedto:Barron'sEducationalSeries,Ine.250WirelessBoulevard

    Hauppauge,NY 11788http://www.barronseduc.com

    Libraryof CongressCataloging-in-PublicationDataYates,Jean.

    Pronounceit perfectlyin English/ byJeanYates- 2nded.

    p. em.ISBN 0-7641-2817-5(book:alk.paper)-ISBN 0-7641-7749-4(book/4CDs)1.Englishlanguage-Pronunciation-Problems,

    exercises,etc. 1.Title.

    All rightsreserved.No partof thisbook maybe reproducedin anyform byphotostat,microfilm,xerography,or anyothermeans,or incorporatedintoanyinformationretrievalsystem,electronicor mechanical,withoutthewrittenpermissionof thecopyrightowner.

  • 31 Syllables and Stress I . - , < 145 -. , .. . 32 TwoSylIable Words - - - ' -'I46

    33 Words with Three or ~ore:$dables 154 _ 34 OneSyllable Prefixes 159 35 Two-Syllable Prefixes* 161 - 36 Suffixes .=I63 37 Sentence Stress 169

    38 Greetings 39 Statements 40 Questions 41 Counting and Listing 44 Options

    More Words to Practice Pronunciation Differences When the Letter a Is Added to a OneSyIlable Word

    CD 1 TRACK 1

    -- Tbe god of "perfect pronunciation" i s not to take your

    k so that people listen to what you 7, not how you say it. The god is to be understood the

    ething, and to be confident and

    This book and tape are designed 'to help you pro- nounce English words, phrases, and sentences correctly,

    e materials are organized to help you get through maze of English spelling so that you will h o w how to

    glish spelling reflects the his- how they are pronounced. ,

    spelling of the vowel sounds, in particular, is an unre- e guide to their pronunciation. Also, many vowel and

    they are simply not pro-

    recede them, and these nges are not reflected in the spelling. Native speakers not even notice these changes, but make them autm tically. You wilI learn to do the same thing.

    Appendix. Each sound is considered separately, by ere are instructions and

    grams to show you how the sound i s made. Examples given of the sound in all possible positions in a word

    phrase, and examples are given of all possible spellings the sound. The unique stress and intonation patterns English, which often carry meaning, are described in tail, with examples for practice. The CDs include all of

  • theseexamples,modeledby nativespeakers,with pausesprovidedso thatyou canrepeatthem.The book and CDsalso include exercises,quizzes,and practicematerialstohelp you makesure you are hearing and producing thesoundscorrectly.

    As the pronunciation of grammaticalmarkersis vitalfor understanding, there are sections entitled "UsageTips" throughoutthematerials.Payparticularattentiontothesesections.If youarea beginner,or havetroublemak-ing yourselfunderstood,do thesesectionsfirst, and con-tinueto practicethem.

    Do not be discouragedif at first you do not hear thedifferences in sounds. You can train yourself to hearthem. Follow the instructions for making the sounds;checkyourselfby looking in the mirror; tape-recordyourvoice.Practicemakingthe differencesandyou will beginto hearthem.

    The book and CDs arecoordinatedso thatyou canusethemseparatelyor together.To improveyourunderstand-ing of English spelling and your recognition of writtenwords,listen to the CDs while looking at the wordsandsentencesin the book. When you listen to the recordingwithoutthe book, simplyrepeatthe examplesduring thepausesprovidedfor writing,and do the writtenexerciseslater.

    The symbolsusedto representeachsoundarebasedonthose of the International Phonetic Alphabet. BecausemanyEnglish vowelsoundsare combinationsof sounds,they are representedhere by combinationsof symbols.This is intendedto help the learnerform thesesoundsbycombiningtheir individualparts.

    vi

    The pronunciation symbols used by The AmericanHeritageDictionary, The RandomHouseDictionary, TheMerriam-WebsterDictionary, The OxfordDictionary,andLongman'sDictionaryappearbelow,so that you mayusethisbook asa pronunciationguidefor anynewwordyoulook up in yourowndictionary.

    Guide to Symbols

    Barron's I longman's I Random

    AmericanMerriam

    Unit

    OxfordHouseHeritageWebster

    1

    g geotau ggg2

    I I 1i1i3

    u u000000u4

    iy iY eeee5

    uw UW505050ii6

    iuwjuiiy50iuyii7

    A A iiuii'g8

    e eeeee9

    ow gU666610

    oiy:)1oioioi6i11

    eg egeaaa12

    eiyeIaaaa13

    ;) ;)aw66614

    a: a:aaaa15

    a:owauowououau16

    a aahit0it17

    aiyat111118

    pb pbpbpbpbpb19

    td t dtdt dt dtd20

    kg kgkgkgkgkg21

    fv fvfvfvfvfv22

    chjgd3chjchjchjchj23

    shzhJ3shzhshzhshzhshzh24

    s z s zs zs zs zs z25

    Ir IrIrIrIrIr26

    mnl]mnT]m n ngm n ngm n ngmnl)27

    6565thdhthth inthth28

    h hhhhh29

    wywjwywywywy

    vii

    1

  • PART ONE

    ENGLislt VOWEL

    SouNds

  • Every vowelsoundrepresentsasyllablein aword.

    Syllablesare either emphasizedand "stressed,"orweakand "unstressed."

    There are 17differentvowelsoundsin English.

    They all have "voice,"which occurs as the vocalcordsvibrate.

    The tongue does not touch other parts of themouth,teeth,or lips.

    The vowelsoundsdiffer by

    thedistancebetweenthelips

    theshapeof thelips

    thelengthof timethe soundis heldThe vowelsoundsareorderedin thisbook accord-

    ing to howopen themouthis.The firstsound,jaj, ismadewith the mouth almostclosed.As the lessons

    progress, the mouth gradually opens. The finalsound,jaiyj, is madewith the mouthwideopen.

    To pronounce each vowelcorrectly,follow thesesteps:

    Look in the mirror.

    Compareyourmouthwith eachdiagram.

    Makeshort soundsquickly.

    Count to two,silently,for long sounds.

    UNiT ONE

    TilE SOUNd lal

    Introducing the SoundWebeginwiththevowelsoundjaj forseveralreasons: it is the mostcommonvowelsound in English;

    mostwordsof morethanonesyllablecontainthissoundin thesofter,or unstressed,syllable,

    many one-syllablewords are pronounced withthissound,

    it canbe spelledwithanyof thefivevowelletters,and alsowith combinationsof letters,

    it is an importantsoundfor certaingrammaticalmarkers(seepages73,105,146),

    nativespeakersautomaticallyknowwhen to pro-nounce thissound,withoutbeingtold whyor inwhatcircumstances,

    pronouncingthisvowelsoundcorrectlyis one ofthemostimportantskillsnecessaryfor clearcom-munication.

    The sound jaj is easyto pronounce.To makeit,simply open your mouth very slightly,and make anoise.It doesnot sound like a formed vowel,and it

    isn't.The lips and tonguearerelaxed,and thevoicemakesa short,softnoise.(SeeFigure 1.)

    lal in Unstressed Syllables

    ,;

    Figure 1.The sound /;)/

    3

  • 4 PRONOUNCE IT PERfECTLy iN ENGLisll UNiT ONE: TilE SOUNd lal 5

    EXAMPLES __ . - . - -

    The consonant-vowelsequencek,especiallyat theend of a word, is usuallypronounced ~l. Listen tothe following examples,and repeatthem after thespeaker.

    However,it takesa lot of practiceto knowwhen tousethissound.As it canbe spelledin somanydiffer-ent ways,we have printed in light blue italicsthelettersthat are pronounced with this sound in theExamples and Exercise sections throughout thisbook. This w,illidentify the sound while preservingthe correct s'pellingof the words.When you see avowelideptifiedthisway,pronounceit assoftlyandasquicklyasyoucan,givingit no emphasis.

    Listen to thefollowingexamplesof wordswith thesound /a/ in unstressedsyllablesand repeatthemafterthe speaker.

    EXAMPLES

    /;}/ in first /;}/ in othersyllable

    /a/ in secondsyllablesyllablesa-go

    so-dacap-taino-ca-sion-al-Iy

    ef-fecto-penpi-geonga-ra-ges

    ex-plainden-impar-tialpoi-son-ous

    Dc-curmeth-odsta-tionpan-o-ra-ma

    u-ponsyr-upcup-boardu-ni-ver-sal

    ExAMPLES'

    doesn'tisn'thasn'twasn'thaven'tdidn'thadn'tshouldn'twouldn'tcouldn't

    able

    capablesuitable

    (does-8nt)(is-8nt)(has-8nt)(was-8nt)(hav-8nt)(did-8nt)(had-8nt)(should-~nt)(would-~nt)(could-8nt)

    (a-b81)(cap-a-b81)(suit-a-b~l

    EXAMPLES . ' ._

    In additionto beingspelledbyall thevowellettersand combinationsof letters,the /a/ sound can alsobe pronouncedwhen thereis no vowelat all. Listento thefollowingexamples,andrepeatthemafterthespeaker.

    prismsocialismnationalism

    (pris-8m)(so-cial-is-8m)(na-ti