Recruitment, Retention, Training Strategies

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  • &Staff

    Recruitment,Retention,

    TrainingStrategies

    for Community Human Services Organizations

    by

    Sheryl A. Larson, Ph.D.Research AssociateResearch Director

    and

    Amy S. Hewitt, M.S.W., Ph.D.Research Associate

    Director of Interdisciplinary Training

    Research and Training Center on Community LivingInstitute on Community Integration

    University of MinnesotaMinneapolis

    with invited contributors

    larso072Typewritten TextResearch and Training Center on Community Living University of Minnesota Republished 2012

  • larso072Typewritten Text

  • CONTENTS

    About the Authors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .viiAbout the Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ixForeword K. Charlie Lakin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xiAcknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xixIntroduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xxiii

    1 Recruitment, Retention, and Training Challenges in Community Human Services: A Review of the Literature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1Sheryl A. Larson, Amy S. Hewitt, and Beth A. Knoblauch

    I Finding and Hiring Employees

    2 Recruiting Direct Support Professionals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21Sheryl A. Larson and Amy S. Hewitt

    3 What Is This Job All About? Using Realistic Job Previews in the Hiring Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47Sheryl A. Larson, Susan N. ONell, and John K. Sauer

    4 Selection Strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .75Sheryl A. Larson and Amy S. Hewitt

    II Socializing and Training Employees

    5 Orientation, Socialization, Networking, and Professionalization . . . . . . . . .105Amy S. Hewitt, Sheryl A. Larson, Susan N. ONell, and John K. Sauer

    6 Linking Training and Performance Through Competency-Based Training . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .125Susan N. ONell and Amy S. Hewitt

    7 Out of the Classroom and On to Employee Training Programs that Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .153Susan N. ONell, Amy S. Hewitt, and John K. Sauer

    8 Fostering Commitment and Skill Through Mentoring Programs . . . . . . . . .177Amy S. Hewitt, Traci L. LaLiberte, Jody Kougl-Lindstrom, and Sheryl A. Larson

    III Motivating and Supporting Employees

    9 Staff Motivation and Recognition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .197Traci L. LaLiberte, Amy S. Hewitt, and Sheryl A. Larson

    10 From Grumbling to Getting Along: Creating and Using Teams to Enhance Retention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .215Amy S. Hewitt, John K. Sauer, and Lori Sedlezky

    v

  • 11 Supporting and Training Supervisors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .239Amy S. Hewitt and Sheryl A. Larson

    IV Assessing Problems and Designing Solutions

    12 Creating Organizational Change Initiatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .271Elizabeth Lightfoot, Amy S. Hewitt, and John K. Sauer

    13 Assessing and Evaluating Workforce Challenges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .287Sheryl A. Larson, Traci L. LaLiberte, and Patricia Salmi

    14 Selecting and Implementing Strategies for Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .321Sheryl A. Larson, Lynda Anderson, and Amy S. Hewitt

    V The Bigger Picture

    15 Strategies for Policy Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .343Sheryl A. Larson and Amy S. Hewitt

    References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .363Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .377

    vi Contents

  • ABOUT THE AUTHORS

    Sheryl A. Larson, Ph.D., Research Associate and Research Director, University ofMinnesota, Institute on Community Integration, Research and Training Center onCommunity Living, 214B Pattee Hall, 150 Pillsbury Drive SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455

    Sheryl A. Larson has 23 years of experience in providing services to individuals withintellectual or developmental disabilities as a residential counselor, behavior analyst,program evaluator, consultant, personal advocate and researcher. She earned a B.A. inpsychology and elementary education from Bethel College in St. Paul, Minnesota, andan M.A. and Ph.D. in educational psychology from the University of Minnesota, Col-lege of Education and Human Development. Her dissertation examined factors asso-ciated with turnover in small group home settings. She is Research Director and aprincipal investigator at the Research and Training Center on Community Living,where she has worked since 1987, directing projects involving survey and interventionresearch, secondary analysis of large data sets, and research synthesis on residentialservices, personnel issues, disability statistics, and community integration for individ-uals with intellectual or developmental disabilities. Dr. Larson has authored or co-authored more than 100 publications on those topics. Recent books include UsingSurvey Data to Study Disability: Results from the National Health Survey on Disability, co-edited with B.M. Altman, S.N. Barnartt, and G.E. Hendershot (Elsevier JAI, 2003), andStaff Recruitment and Retention: Study Results and Intervention Strategies, co-authoredwith K.C. Lakin and R.H. Bruininks (American Association on Mental Retardation[AAMR], 1998).

    Dr. Larson currently directs two National Institute on Disability and Rehabilita-tion Research (NIDRR) field-initiated projects, including one to create a nationaltechnical assistance model to support front-line supervisors and another to conductanalyses using the National Health Interview Survey to describe characteristics of andoutcomes for people with disabilities living in their own or family homes. She hasworked with her colleagues at the University of Minnesota to develop statewide work-force plans and to provide technical assistance on workforce issues to providers andfamilies in several states. She has made more than 150 presentations at national, state,regional, and local conferences and workshops, including workshops on staff recruit-ment and retention for more than 3,000 managers and supervisors. She is an AAMRFellow, President of the AAMR Community Services Division, a consulting editor ofMental Retardation and Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disability and has par-ticipated in NIDRR and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention grant reviewpanels. She received a Presidential Award from AAMR for workforce research. Sheserves on the Minnesota Governors Council on Developmental Disabilities as the highereducation representative and is on the Board of Directors of No Place Like Home, aprogram providing supportive housing to adults with disabilities.

    vii

  • Amy S. Hewitt, M.S.W., Ph.D., Research Associate and Director of InterdisciplinaryTraining, University of Minnesota, Institute on Community Integration, Researchand Training Center on Community Living, 214D Pattee Hall, 150 Pillsbury DriveSE, Minneapolis, MN 55455

    Amy S. Hewitt has an extensive background and work history in the field of develop-mental disabilities and has worked in various positions over the past 23 years, includingas a residential Program Director and Director of Training. She is currently ResearchAssociate and Director of Interdisciplinary Training at the University of Minnesota,Institute on Community Integration, where she directs several federal and state re-search, evaluation, and demonstration projects in the areas of direct support profes-sional (DSP) workforce development and community human services for people withdisabilities. Dr. Hewitt is a national leader in the area of workforce development andcommunity supports for individuals with developmental disabilities.

    Dr. Hewitts current projects include the College of Direct Support, a nationaltraining curriculum development project that currently offers training to more than100,000 DSPs throughout the United States; Mobilizing for Change, an Administrationon Developmental Disabilities field-initiated project to develop an on-line trainingcurriculum for frontline supervisors (College of Frontline Supervision); Removingthe Revolving Door, a national project to develop and implement a train-the-trainertechnical assistance model in five states to teach others how to effectively work withorganizations to reduce DSP turnover and vacancy rates; Kansans Mobilizing forWorkforce Change, a systems change project to improve retention and recruitment ofDSPs in community human services organizations; and The Illinois ComprehensiveWorkforce Development Initiative to Achieve Improved Individual Outcomes forCitizens with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, a statewide systems changeproject to reduce direct support professional turnover.

    Dr. Hewitt has authored and co-authored many curricula, journal articles, andmanuscripts. She is a managing editor of Frontline Initiative, a national newsletter forDSPs; a contributing editor for LINKS, a newsletter of ANCOR; and guest editor ofMental Retardati