Railway Terminologies

of 26

  • date post

    30-May-2018
  • Category

    Documents

  • view

    218
  • download

    0

Embed Size (px)

Transcript of Railway Terminologies

  • 8/14/2019 Railway Terminologies

    1/26

    ORESEGUN ADEDAPO TOLULOPEF/HD/06/3510041

    SLEEPER

    A railroad tie, cross tie, or railway sleeper is a rectangular

    object used as a base for railroad tracks. Sleepers are members

    generally laid transverse to the rails, on which the rails are

    supported and fixed, to transfer the loads from rails to the ballast

    and sub grade below, and to hold the rails to the correct gauge.

    Traditionally, ties have been made ofwood, but concrete is now

    widely used, Steel ties and plastic composite ties are currently

    used as well, however far less than wood or concrete ties. As of

    January 2008, the approximate market share, in North America,

    for traditional wood ties was 91.5%, whereas the approximate

    combined market share for (all) concrete, steel, azobe (exotic

    hardwood) and plastic composite ties was 8.5%. (source: A & K

    Railroad Material co.)

    Ties are normally laid on top oftrack ballast, which supports and

    holds them in place, and provides drainage and flexibility. Heavy

    crushed stone is the normal material for the ballast, but on lines

    with lower speeds and weight, sand, gravel, and even ash from

    the fires of coal-fired steam locomotives have been used.

    1

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Railroad_trackshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rail_gaugehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Woodhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Concretehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Steelhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plastichttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Azobehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Track_ballasthttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rock_(geology)http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sandhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gravelhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Railroad_trackshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Railroad_trackshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rail_gaugehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rail_gaugehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rail_gaugehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Woodhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Woodhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Woodhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Concretehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Concretehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Concretehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Steelhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Steelhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Steelhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plastichttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plastichttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plastichttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Azobehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Azobehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Azobehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Track_ballasthttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Track_ballasthttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Track_ballasthttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rock_(geology)http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rock_(geology)http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rock_(geology)http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sandhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sandhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sandhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gravelhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gravelhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gravelhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Railroad_tracks
  • 8/14/2019 Railway Terminologies

    2/26

    ORESEGUN ADEDAPO TOLULOPEF/HD/06/3510041

    Wooden Sleeper

    Timber ties are usually of a variety ofhardwoods, oak being a

    particularly popular material. Some lines use softwoods,

    sometimes due to material necessity; while they have the

    advantage of accepting treatment more readily, they are more

    susceptible to wear. They are often heavily creosoted or, less

    often, treated with other preservatives, although some timbers

    (such as sal) are durable enough that they can be used untreated.

    The main problem with wood is its tendency to rot, particularly

    near the points where they are fastened to the rails. The timber

    industry has responded to decreased use of timber by promoting

    its advantages; wooden ties still dominate the North American

    market.

    2

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hardwoodhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oakhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Softwoodhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wood_preservativehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Creosotehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wood_preservationhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hardwoodhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hardwoodhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hardwoodhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oakhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oakhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oakhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Softwoodhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Softwoodhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Softwoodhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wood_preservativehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wood_preservativehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wood_preservativehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Creosotehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Creosotehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Creosotehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wood_preservationhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wood_preservationhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wood_preservationhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sal
  • 8/14/2019 Railway Terminologies

    3/26

    ORESEGUN ADEDAPO TOLULOPEF/HD/06/3510041

    Concrete Sleeper

    Concrete ties have become more common mainly due to greater

    economy and better support of the rails under heavy traffic. In the

    early period railway history, wood was the only material used for

    making ties in Europe. Even in those days, occasional shortages

    and increasing cost of wood posed problems. This induced

    engineers to seek alternatives to wooden ties. As concrete

    technology developed in the 19th century, concrete established

    its place as a versatile building material and could be adapted to

    meet the requirements of railway industry.

    In 1877, Mr. Monnier, a French gardener and inventor of reinforced

    concrete, suggested that cement concrete could be used for

    making ties for railway track. Monnier designed a tie and obtained

    3

  • 8/14/2019 Railway Terminologies

    4/26

    ORESEGUN ADEDAPO TOLULOPEF/HD/06/3510041

    a patent for it, but it was not successful. Designs were further

    developed and the railways ofAustria and Italy produced the first

    concrete ties around the turn of the 20th century. This was closely

    followed by other European railways.

    Major progress could not be achieved until World War II, when the

    timbers used for ties was extremely scarce due to material

    shortages. Due to research carried out on French and other

    European railways, the modern concrete tie was developed.

    Heavier rail sections and long welded rails were also being

    produced, requiring higher quality ties. These conditions spurred

    the development of concrete ties in France, Germany and Britain,

    where the technology was perfected.

    Toward the end of the 1990s, the Long Island Rail Road, followed

    by Amtrak, began rehabilitation of their lines in the New York

    metropolitan area by installing steel-reinforced concrete ties,

    updating some of the busiest rail lines in North America .

    4

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Austriahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Italyhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_War_IIhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Germanyhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/UKhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Long_Island_Rail_Roadhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amtrakhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_York_metropolitan_areahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_York_metropolitan_areahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Austriahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Austriahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Austriahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Italyhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Italyhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Italyhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_War_IIhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_War_IIhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_War_IIhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Germanyhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Germanyhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Germanyhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/UKhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/UKhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/UKhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Long_Island_Rail_Roadhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Long_Island_Rail_Roadhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Long_Island_Rail_Roadhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amtrakhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amtrakhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amtrakhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_York_metropolitan_areahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_York_metropolitan_areahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_York_metropolitan_areahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_York_metropolitan_areahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_York_metropolitan_areahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_York_metropolitan_area
  • 8/14/2019 Railway Terminologies

    5/26

    ORESEGUN ADEDAPO TOLULOPEF/HD/06/3510041

    Steel Sleeper

    Steel ties, which are relatively light in weight, are sometimes used

    for sidings and temporary tracks. They have the advantages of

    being relatively free from decay and attack from insects, as well

    as providing excellent gauge restraint, but are prone to rust and

    wear at the rail seat; they also require frequent replacement and

    tightening of fastenings. They are generally unsuited to railway

    lines carrying vehicles traveling at over 60 mph (100 km/h)

    because they provide no damping, all force being transmitted to

    the underlying track ballast. Prefabricated, all-metal "Jubilee"

    track, which was developed in the late nineteenth century for use

    in quarries and the like and saw some use in major civil

    engineering projects, is one example of steel ties in use.

    5

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Insecthttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rusthttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Track_ballasthttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Insecthttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Insecthttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Insecthttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rusthttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rusthttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rusthttp://en.wikipe