Puneet Final Semester Project

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    SSTTAATTIICC SSTTRREESSSS AANNAALLYYSSIISS OOFF AA LLAATTHHEE FFOORRMM TTOOOOLL

    UUSSIINNGG AANNSSYYSS

    Submitted in

    Partial fulfillment for the award of the degree of

    BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY

    In

    MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

    Submitted by-

    Puneet Mehra (MT-1935-2K7)

    Shubhra Kacker (MT-1947-2K7)

    Shelly Tirlok (MT-1946-2K7)

    Under the guidance of-

    Mr. Mukesh Gupta

    YMCA UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY FARIDABAD

    SESSION 2007-2011

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    CANDIDATES DECLARATION

    I hereby certify that the work which is being presented in this project, entitled Static Stress

    Analysis of a Lathe Form Tool using ANSYS, in partial fulfillment of the requirement for final

    semester project and submitted in the Mechanical Engineering department is the authentic

    record of our own work carried out during a period from January, 2011 to April, 2011 under the

    supervision ofMr. Mukesh Gupta.

    Puneet Mehra

    Shubhra Kacker

    Shelly Tirlok

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    SUPERVISORS DECLARATION

    This is to certify that the above statement made by the candidate is correct to the best of my

    knowledge. All the four students were dedicated and sincere to their project work.

    Mukesh Gupta

    (Supervisor)

    The Viva-Voice Examination of all the three Students has been held on..

    Mukesh Gupta

    (Supervisor)

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    ABSTRACT

    Simulation is now-a-days the best implemented method for the testing of materials and

    products without actual prototyping which involves a lot of money and time which both are

    very precious in the field of production.

    On the other hand lathe is a very important tool used in day to day production which

    uses various tools for different operations.

    We have done a steady state stress analysis of a form tool used on lathe used for

    making fillets and semicircular grooves for different stresses produced in it and also the strain

    produced. For this purpose a HSS radius tool is used. All the values of the stresses and the

    material properties were fed to a CAE package ANSYS v13 which implements FEM.

    The results obtained were validated by the criteria of convergence and have been

    produced in this report. The stress levels and the strain levels were very much within the

    permissible limit and hence the tool is safe from the various forces acting on it

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    ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

    I am awed and overwhelmed as I bow to Dr. Sandeep Grover, Professor and Head, Department

    of Mechanical Engineering Y.M.C.A. University of Science and Technology. I wish to express

    my sincere gratitude to my project guide Mr. Mukesh Gupta, for providing me an opportunity

    to do my project work Static Stress Analysis of a Lathe Form Tool using ANSYS. This project

    bears on imprint of many people. It is an eternal honor to have word as his student for such a

    long spell. His support, personal guidance, thought provoking discussions and encouragement

    helped me guide through the upheavals. I wish God Almighty bestowed upon me the blessings

    that I never falter in my duties as a true student.

    Last but not the least I wish to avail myself of this opportunity, express a sense of gratitude and

    love to my friends and my beloved parents for their manual support, strength and help for

    everything.

    Puneet Mehra

    Shubhra Kacker

    Shelly Tirlok

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    CONTENTS

    S.No. Description Page No.

    Chapter 1: Introduction

    1.1 What is Lathe? 9

    1.2 Lathe History 9

    1.3 Metal Working Lathe 11

    1.4 Lathe Tools 13

    1.5 Tool Materials 14

    1.6 Tool Geometry 17

    1.7 Metal Cutting 19

    1.8 Forces in Two-Dimensional Cutting 20

    1.9 ANSYS 22

    Chapter 2: Literature Review

    2.1 Previous studies in Stress Analysis of Tools 24

    Chapter 3: Present Work

    3.1 Tool Selection 27

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    3.2 Selection of Tool Material 28

    3.3 Structural Loads and Constraints 29

    3.4 ANSYS Generated Project Report 30

    Chapter 4: Results & Discussions

    4.1 Results 44

    4.2 Validation of Results 47

    Chapter 5: Future Scope

    5.1 Transient Structural 485.2 Thermal 485.3 Analytical Validation 49REFERENCES 50

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    LIST OF FIGURES

    S.No. Description Page No.

    1.3 A Metal Working Lathe 12

    1.4 Projections of a Lathe Tool 13

    1.4 Types of Lathe Tools 14

    1.6 Tool Bit Geometry 17

    1.7 Machining Terminology 19

    1.8 Forces in Metal Cutting 20

    3.4 Tool Used 30

    4.1 Maximum Principal Stress 44

    4.1 Maximum Principal Elastic Strain 45

    4.1 Total Deformation 46

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    Chapter 1

    INTRODUCTION

    1.1What is Lathe?

    A lathe is a machine tool which rotates the workpiece on its axis to perform various operations

    such as cutting, sanding, knurling, drilling, or deformation with tools that are applied to the

    workpiece to create an object which has symmetry about an axis of rotation.

    Lathes are used in woodturning, metalworking, metal spinning, and glassworking. Lathes can be

    used to shape pottery, the best-known design being the potter's wheel. Most suitably equipped

    metalworking lathes can also be used to produce most solids of revolution, plane surfaces and

    screw threads or helices. Ornamental lathes can produce three-dimensional solids of incredible

    complexity. The material can be held in place by either one or two centers, at least one of which

    can be moved horizontally to accommodate varying material lengths. Other workholding

    methods include clamping the work about the axis of rotation using a chuck or collet, or to a

    faceplate, using clamps or dogs.

    1.2 Lathe History

    The lathe is an ancient tool, dating at least to ancient Egypt and known and used in Assyria,

    ancient Greece, and the Roman and Byzantine Empires.

    The origin of turning dates to around 1300 BC when the Egyptians first developed a two-person

    lathe. One person would turn the wood work piece with a rope while the other used a sharp

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    tool to cut shapes in the wood. The Romans improved the Egyptian design with the addition of

    a turning bow. Early bow lathes were also developed and used in Germany, France and Britain.

    In the Middle Ages a pedal replaced hand-operated turning, freeing both the craftsman's hands

    to hold the woodturning tools. The pedal was usually connected to a pole, often a straight-

    grained sapling. The system today is called the "spring pole" lathe (see Pole lathe). Spring pole

    lathes were in common use into the early 20th century. A two-person lathe, called a "great

    lathe", allowed a piece to turn continuously (like today's power lathes). A master would cut the

    wood while an apprentice turned the crank.

    During the Industrial Revolution, mechanized power generated by water wheels or steam

    engines was transmitted to the lathe via line shafting, allowing faster and easier work. The

    design of lathes diverged between woodworking and metalworking to a greater extent than in

    previous centuries. Metalworking lathes evolved into heavier machines with thicker, more rigid

    parts. The application of lead screws, slide rests, and gearing produced commercially practical

    screw-cutting lathes. Between the late 19th and mid-20th centuries, individual electric motors

    at each lathe replaced line shafting as the power source. Beginning in the 1950s,

    servomechanisms were applied to the control of lathes and other machine tools via numerical

    control (NC), which often was coupled with computers to yield computerized numerical control

    (CNC). Today manually controlled and CNC lathes coexist in the manufacturing industries.

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    1.3 Metal Working Lathe

    In a metalworking lathe, metal is removed from the workpiece using a hardened cutting tool,

    which is usually fixed to a solid moveable mounting, either a toolpost or a turret, which is then

    moved against the workpiece using handwheels and/or computer controlled motors. These

    (cutting) tools come in a wide range of sizes and shapes depending upon their application.

    Some common styles are diamond, round, square and triangular.

    The toolpost is operated by leadscrews that can accurately position the tool in a variety of

    planes. The toolpost may be driven manually or automatically to produce the roughing and

    finishing cuts required to turn the workpiece to the desired shape and dimensions, or for

    cutting threads, worm gears, etc. Cutting fluid may also be pumped to the cutting site to

    provide cooling, lubrication and clearing of swarf from the workpiece. Some lathes may be

    operated under control of a computer for mass production of parts (see "Computer Numerical

    Control").

    Manually controlled metalworking lathes are commonly provided with a variable ratio gear

    train to drive the main leadscrew. This enables different thread pitches