PRR Localizing Development Ch3

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    C h a p t e r t h r e e

    t Cg Icig picii

    thIs Chapter applIes the analytICal ramework outlIned

    i c 2 i b cg c i v-

    ig civi ci i, ivig ici civi ci i gv, iig ici jc.

    w c ici v civ, ci-

    i? w c i c v b

    i ic? w cg ig ic

    ivi i civic i ic icii? h

    iciv ii iii gv bcci

    c ii ici jc? t c

    ic iv gi

    i vic i bq c.

    u ig cii, civ c icii c b

    c cg civ vi v-

    bjciv. lc v v big ici

    cii b i g

    ibi i ic cii ci g

    wig (2003) c ici gvc. ti c

    i cciz b i ici:

    picii v cic ii.

    picii b b , i

    c b b gb bi i b ivv i cii ig.

    picii b ibiv.

    g wig ibi c cciv ci-

    i ig i ic g c c c iv i

    Under the right conditions

    eective local participatio

    can be a powerul orce o

    change and the achieveme

    o various development

    objectives.

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    l o c a l i z i n g d e v e l o p m e n t : d o e s p a r t i c i p a t i o n w o r k ?

    88

    vi. I i ci c c ggg

    i g c ci. I c cii ig,

    c ggg b cig v. dibiv cii ig

    qi ici i ii g

    g cic cii i vi, v i

    ci cic i.a xiig vi cc c ici

    gvc , g wig cc i

    vc i ici, gvc iii

    ic ig :

    Devolution. lc cii-ig i v ig-

    b ccb.

    Centralized supervision and coordination. lc cii-ig

    i ii, ,

    icv b i i big i ccb b c.

    State-centered, not voluntary. e icii

    iii ig i i i i-

    ci v c.

    Iic, icii qi g, ciig

    iiz b bjciv ig

    cc v c vi ciiz i

    ig ic b civ vi c

    b ic i c .t i ig ici v i

    g i iivi civ

    g c bjciv

    civ bjciv i . B biizig ciiz

    g i cciv -big, ici v

    i i i

    i ivig cci iivi b

    g.

    o icii c i i c v iiic v

    p v i c vig i ii ,

    big i . I bic cii i ibiv

    ici, i giv v ic

    , c q vic, c b

    ic cii , i i, i c gc

    Ironically, empowered

    participation requires a

    strong, unctioning state.

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    t h e c h a l l e n g e o f i n d u c i n g p a r t i c i p a t

    piic i c icii i

    c iiv -i b czig ib

    cg i iivi: c cii cic ig, g

    c ic, iivi b cici,

    c bii i c i bi i

    c, bii gg i ic jg (w 1995).

    mc v icii c b c i hic

    (1970) vi vic b iiic i v. t

    gi aj ai (2004) g , cibig vic

    c cci. Vic, c, i j

    ig cic ig b ggig i ci, iic,

    cic i i , ic, gizi, b-

    ic c, i gi vig i . ti

    cci i i v iib. I ii icv ci b b ci, iic, cic

    cci v c vig ,

    i . . . b cci i b

    ii bjc ii. t ic b b

    vig i cizig i ii. I icii

    i bi i vigi cci, vic cci

    i b cic i, i c ccig

    (ai 2004).

    pici ivi , v, ji b i

    i vi i ccb ciiz, cii biiz

    iv ci ivi ii g c -

    c. t ccbii ci icii qi

    g biiz i cg iciv g

    c i i ciiz. s i

    cc bc iciv iivi ci

    , ci i g, ig i

    ciiz; i, g xiiz i i. I

    bc q vig, i c c i g

    v c, bi ci bic

    c. , i vig ci i g gi

    ( i, b), c ci cc-

    b , ivig ci ic i

    b ig c . t cqc

    Participation can have

    intrinsic value: people ma

    value the simple courtesy

    being listened to.

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    l o c a l i z i n g d e v e l o p m e n t : d o e s p a r t i c i p a t i o n w o r k ?

    90

    c i cbig biig b c, ciig

    i , cb ig

    i biqi i vig .

    picii i c g c

    gi i iv i bic g. I

    ccbii i b c, ci, icfic. h i cfic i g c

    , iii iciv i g,

    ivii ibii b iic i

    bc, x cizi i

    civi ciiz.

    picii i c ivi ii

    ci . micci g biiz g iivi

    cciv c c v b, i

    v cii b i i ii cii iivi, ic v b

    g ci i vicig c cii

    s- g v b biiz x ivi

    ii gb viig iig i ic

    gic ciq, x, iig i -c

    i civii. t g vi ci

    cic , ig i

    ii g.

    picii b vii

    bic g vic c , , c, ciic, ic c gv ic vi. I ci

    iv v ivi, c bic g vic

    b v i cii g. I i x

    c cii q i gv

    b qic, xci

    i biiz bi , , big g

    gc i. w c i gig g civi

    i, ci-b i i cfic

    cci.

    picii b c ci, iic,

    cic iqi. B vig i ii i civic bi

    ivg g, ici ivi

    v xici iciii b ig

    gii i i big ii

    Participation has the

    potential to orce agents o

    the state to act against theirprivate interests and or the

    public good.

    Participation has

    been used to try to redressthe underprovision o public

    goods and services . . .

    . . . and to reduce social,

    political, and economic

    inequality.

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    t h e c h a l l e n g e o f i n d u c i n g p a r t i c i p a t

    i. t ivi i cfic, i c-

    g giv i i.

    uig civic g c v ivv

    cfic i i, bc i cg bi i

    i. I ci, ic, ci-b ici-

    bi c bcii v ci g, iv gig v c i civ i.

    Participation and the Capacity to Engage

    a i i ic ici ivi c i b

    cgig cc v ici c , v

    i, ci ii. I ig q vi,

    ci c . mvig ccb gv b qi big b

    cg i c ic. t cvi i

    big b ii xiig ii c-

    ii b ci i ic c i,

    cg, b i ic, ciiz

    bjc. sc i i cgii c v i c-

    ic iici (B 2011).

    t big b i cg, ciiz v cc -

    i iciv giccii, ci, ig,

    ig, ig b gic .ev i c v ii ic

    ci bic c, cg i c c, v

    i, bi Gib wcc (2008) c cci

    gg. hvig ibiv ci giv gi-

    iz g qib giig, ig, ig

    i i i i i i xic. wi

    ici, qi i bii ic

    c v cii jc b qi-

    b gvc. ti xi i i gic i c cg

    civ ii i cii b

    civ v.

    r s (2010) z ci 300 gram sab-

    has(vig ig) Ii. ti xc ici

    b -c i panchayat(vig cci),

    Participatory interventions

    have the potential to chan

    the character o everyday

    interactionsa process thover time, reshapes socia

    relationships.

    To bring about this change

    citizens must have access

    a new toolkit o discursivestrategies that they are ab

    to deploy strategically.

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    l o c a l i z i n g d e v e l o p m e n t : d o e s p a r t i c i p a t i o n w o r k ?

    92

    -c vig (J), vig (mij

    cb (di) cvi x ibiv

    ci i ic di vig i ig ciiz.

    Jayaraman:t 45 ii i vig. n

    . w g i g. wv i g ci ci. B i iib c

    ci ig c bc v . . .

    s q gv ig. . . . o

    i i. ev i , i. . . . h

    i v q ci g

    c ?! w c q . t

    i .

    Panchayat president:I 2025 i , b b i . t b

    i b ig .

    Muniraj:t [i v b], i v

    g i [ gram sabha ig i ig

    c]. I qi b i , c

    vic ? w i ? . . . I b

    bg ci, v i b

    ei, i bc c v

    i i i ! t c c [ gram sabhaig] v

    b . y c, i ci, ig

    ci g v, g . w ?

    yv j . w v

    ? . . . w b c v.

    X c y c, i i . w v, b

    ? w g v b

    i, v , v , i

    . . . w g i . B b

    i b. wv b i

    . ev vig i i. h

    i . B b i ig

    . t i i iv. w c

    ig i.

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    t h e c h a l l e n g e o f i n d u c i n g p a r t i c i p a t

    Panchayat president:I cii, i

    i . t ci-b i-

    ciii b. I i b b 1 ji

    v , I bc i. o , i v

    i b v , bc

    i. a i i c b v i. t, g g, v

    bic i v ig. a c bc . . . . ev

    g b b g, I i-

    . I cg c i.

    Muniraj:ev b q. n b

    ii . w b giv cc i

    i [ i]. w b i

    ig? J bc I i i, i I g i ic . I i vicig ig.

    C-b ivii v iic i Ii. t i-

    v i cic c ic icig bic

    c. I i ii ici

    big cg igram sabhaig, mij

    g ci iic. l-c cg c

    ; xcg xc bv i i i c

    b c i b i vig

    b i v, c c iqi. oi ivg c v i iic icii,

    bc gram sabha i ic ig

    i ciiv ii cic i i i

    ii ciiz i q ig i . t

    bic ici v i cg c ci

    i bc v

    xi iici i iv i -

    ig ci i bic, ggig i

    i. sc ici x i ci (sc

    1990) c ig i ii b

    c vi cg .

    mi i , c

    c b vic ci giv

    ig q cgii ciiz. w

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    l o c a l i z i n g d e v e l o p m e n t : d o e s p a r t i c i p a t i o n w o r k ?

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    c -c cg cc i civ civic cci

    ci v ic c, v

    iqi, x ic iqi i b ii

    b ci ii.

    Diagnosing Failure Triangles

    ec ici ivi c b ci i i

    igi i i i c i i ig

    g iiic i c, g-

    v bjciv, - cii. ec

    ivi i ii ci ( ic

    ci g i v i g biiz

    cc ic). n c g ii i cii, v i ggic ci

    bi iciv cciv ci. Cq,

    b bjc i i.

    pi iv civic bjciv

    b g g. wi biig icci g i

    i g c g vig cci ci? wi

    ig ci i q cci

    i ci-b iii c c bi i

    c ?

    Gv ivi b jii i cic ci iqii