Properties of Biomaterials - Suranaree University of...

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  • 1

    Properties of Biomaterials

    426308 Ceramic Eng. Prop.

    Asst. Prof. Dr. Sirirat T. Rattanachan

  • 2

    Content (3 )

    Definition

    Application

    The responding of tissue to implants

    Biomaterials and design

    In vitro and In vivo

  • 3

    Definitions

    A biomaterial is a nonviable material used in a medical device, intended to interact with biological systems. (Williams, 1987)

    Biocompatibility is the ability of a material to perform with an appropriate host response in a specific application. (Williams, 1987)

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    Biomaterials market

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    Applications

    (Skeletal systems)

    :Ti, Ti-Al-V alloys, stainless steel, polyethylene

    : stainless steel, Co-Cr alloys

    : Poly (methyl methacrylate)

    : Hydroxyapatite !: Teflon, Dacron"# ! : Ti, Al, calcium phosphate

    "# ! : porcelain, zirconia

    (Skeletal systems)

    :Ti, Ti-Al-V alloys, stainless steel, polyethylene

    : stainless steel, Co-Cr alloys

    : Poly (methyl methacrylate)

    : Hydroxyapatite !: Teflon, Dacron"# ! : Ti, Al, calcium phosphate

    "# ! : porcelain, zirconia Ref. 2

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    (Cardiovascular systems)

    : Dacron, Teflon, polyurethane

    $%&' !: stainless steel, carbon

    ()*&+ : silicone rubber, Teflon, polyurethane

    (Cardiovascular systems)

    : Dacron, Teflon, polyurethane

    $%&' !: stainless steel, carbon

    ()*&+ : silicone rubber, Teflon, polyurethane

    Ref. 2

    Applications

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    (organs)

    : Polyurethane

    :silicone-collagen composite

    : cellulose, polyacrylonitrile

    !: silicone rubber

    (organs)(organs)

    : Polyurethane

    :silicone-collagen composite

    : cellulose, polyacrylonitrile

    !: silicone rubber

    Applications

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    (Senses)

    %& (Cochlear): Platinum electrode

    ! (Intraocular lens): poly(methylmethacrylate), silicone rubber, hydrogel

    , , (contact lens):silicone-acrylate, hydrogel

    ' (Corneal bandage): collagen, hydrogel

    (Senses)

    %& (Cochlear): Platinum electrode

    ! (Intraocular lens): poly(methylmethacrylate), silicone rubber, hydrogel

    , , (contact lens):silicone-acrylate, hydrogel

    ' (Corneal bandage): collagen, hydrogel

    Ref. 2

    Applications

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    Tissue Response to Implants

    Interactions between implant surface and tissue

    implant

    waterDissolved ions

    Free bimolecular

    Chemotaxis

    Phagocytosis

    Macrophage activation

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    Chemotaxis

    Target

    Macrophages

    Macrophages activation

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    The response of hard tissue to implantation

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    Scheme of process of wound healing in a simple incisional wound

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    Scheme of process of wound healing in the presence of a foreign body

    !"""

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    Sequence of surface reaction in the bioactive bonding to bone

    Bioactive glass (SiO2-CaO-Na2O)Bioactive glass (SiO2-CaO-Na2O)

    "# $ SiOH bond

    Polycondensation of SiOH+SiOHSi-O-Si

    Adsorption of amorphous Ca+PO4+CO3

    Crystallization of Hydroxyl carbonate apatite (HCA)

    Adsorption of biological moities in HCA layerAction of macrophagesAttachment of stem cells

    Differentiation of stem cells !%&'#Generation of matrix

    Crystallization of matrix

    deve

    lopm

    ent

    Bone growth

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    Factors affecting implant-tissue interfacial response

    (" ")*+

    , ")*+

    ,- -

    .- -

    #-

    /-

    (%

    ("0

    120

    0

    "+0

    "- -

    3"40- -

    (%

    Implant sideTissue side

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    Various methods of prosthesis fixation

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    Bioceramics Alumina Zirconia Calcium phosphate Hydroxyapatite Bioactive glasses Bioactive glass-ceramics

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    Bone tissue

    Schematic drawings of bone tissue. On the left is a depiction of the 3 types of lamellar bone in the shaft of a long bone. The Haversian systems, and inner and outer lamella are shown. On the right, is a higher magnification diagram of a Haversian canal and contiguous lamella. Taken from Junqueira and Carneiro, Basic Histology, a text and atlas, pp. 44 and 46, Figures 8-6 and 8-8.

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    Physical properties of materials used for joint prosthesis and bone

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    (" "%0

    " 02 "

    "3%8 Bioinert " Fibrous tissue

    "3%8 Bioactive "(% 0

    "3%8 Biodegradable "0$(3"

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    Types of Tissue attachment of bioceramic prostheses

    Tricalcium phosphate

    Bioactive glasses

    Replacement with tissueResorbable

    Bioactive glasses, Bioactive glass-ceramics HA

    Interfacial bonding with tissues (bioactive fixation)

    Bioactive

    Hydroxyapatite (HA),

    HA coated porous metals

    Ingrowth of tissues into pores

    (biological fixation)

    Porous

    Al2O3, ZirconiaMechanical interlock

    (morphological fixation)

    Nearly inert

    ExampleType of attachmentType of implant

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    Bioinert

    & ")*+ .# ,*

    " .# %4"

    Alumina

    Zirconia & Y-TZP, Mg-PSZ

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    Alumina for surgical implants

    High density, purity (>99.5% Al2O3) is used in load-bearing hip protheses and dental implants Excellent corrosion resistance

    Good compatibility

    High wear resistance

    High strength

  • 28

    Use of zirconia in surgical implants

    Tetragonal zirconia stabilized with yttria (TZP)

    Magnesium oxide partially stabilized zirconia (MG-PCZ)

    High fracture toughness

    High flexural strength

    Lower youngs modulus

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    Bioactive glass

    Bioglass 45S5: 45%SiO2, 24.5 Na2O, 24.4% CaO and 6%P2O5 melt at 1300-1450C

    Na2O-CaO-SiO2 glass " P2O5, B2O3 CaF2 Their rapid rate of surface reaction leads to fast tissue bonding

    Mechanical weakness and low fracture toughness

    Application: middle ear device

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    Bioactive glass-ceramics

    Apatite-wollastonite (A/W) glass ceramics: 3CaO.P2O5-CaO.SiO2-

    MgO.CaO.2SiO2 fine grained

    oxyapatite and fibrous -wollastoniteprecipitated.

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    Mechineable and phosphate glass-ceramics

    BIOVERIT I and BIOVERIT II: a mica-apatite glass-ceramics (SiO2-(Al2O3)-MgO-Na2O-K2O-F-CaO-P2O5 base glass system.

    Clinical applications: Orthopaedic surgery (spacers), head and neck surgery (middle ear implants), stomatology (tooth root and veneer laminates)

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    Calcium phosphate ceramics

    3"" "1,*5

    ." "% Ca/P = 0.5 -2.0 Dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) or Brushite

    CaHPO4.2H2O (Ca/P = 1.0)

    Dicalcium phosphate (montite) CaHPO4 Tricalcium phosphate (Ca3(PO4)2) Ca/P = 1.5

    Tetracalcium phosphate (Ca4O(PO4)2) Ca/P = 2.0

    Hydroxyapatite Ca/P = 1.67

    Octacalcium phosphate (Ca8H2(PO4)6.5H2O)

    Ca/P = 1.33

  • 33

    Apatite

    Hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2)

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    Forms and application

    Dense hydroxyapatite

    Porous hydroxyapatite

    Coating

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    Synthetic hydroxyapatite

    Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 or HA

    (Ca,X)10(PO4,HPO4,CO3)6(OH,Y)2X= Mg, Na, Sr = cation

    Y = choride or fluoride = anion

    Sintered HA

    Porous sHA

    calcium nitrate,Diammonium hydrogen phosphate

    And NH4OH

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    !"#$

    3"% bending strength, flexure testing, Fracture toughness, hardness

    - 3"% surface charge, hydrophilicity or hydrophobicity surface analysis and solution

    analysis

    " 3" % Bioactive and Biocompatability

  • 38

    Bioactivity and biocompatibility

    Bioactivity: " in vivo 745 (%"1 ")*+ !

    8+4" "1 % Bioactive glass 42-53 %SiO2 4(%

    "13"6+ 1 % Bioactive glass 54-60%SiO2 (% "13"6+ 2 "

    745#A "(%+ pH (7.2-7.4) +%5

    Bioactive glass + SBF .""1" .

    ( 0.- (%" HCA

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    Biocompatibility: ""#"$$%$!&'( !%$"#")%*$!&'(# In vitro +!$%%$, $-.%.&!/ +

    !$%%"#/012$ !%,$%)3, 1!,%4"#$!&1#)%. +1.%$!&

    In vivo !$%$ $,!!5%012!) $$,6%012!)$/!)1#

    Histomorphometry +012 3!)!1#7

    $!&'(

    Bioactivity and biocompatibility

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    Consequences of Implant-Tissue interaction

    Tissue replaces implantDissolution of implant

    Tissue forms an interfacial bond with the implant

    Bioactive

    Tissue forms a non-adherent fibrous capsule around the implant

    Biologically nearly inert

    Tissue diesToxic

    ConsequenceImplant-tissue reaction

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    Biodegradable

    '(-++

    (( scaffold = cell + biomaterials

    Inorganic compounds: HA, bioactive glass

    Biopolymers: PMMA, PE

    Biodegradable polymer: aliphatic polyesters=

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    Bioactive polymer/ceramic composite scaffold

    Bioactive ceramic phase

    (bioglass, HA)

    Biodegradable and bioactive composites

    Biodegradable polymer

    (PDLLA, PHA, PLGA, collagen)

    Bioactive phase

    as filler or coating

    Dense compositesPorous composites

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    Tissue engineering

    scaffold

    -$ +++!+

    .& $'.)!)/!0)/$1

    0 .&$- 0-+!

    -&23%)-- -0

    -+

    &$+%!4!&

  • 44

    In Vitro Testing of Cytotoxicity of Materials

    Cellular mechanisms of toxicity can be described using biochemical assays