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  • Promoting Green Urban Development in African Cities ETHEKWINI, SOUTH AFRICA

    Urban Environmental Profile

    wb20439 Typewritten Text

    wb20439 Typewritten Text

    wb20439 Typewritten Text Report no. 103643

  • Promoting Green Urban Development in African Cities ETHEKWINI, SOUTH AFRICA

    Urban Environmental Profile

  • COPYRIGHT

    © 2016 International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank

    1818 H Street NW Washington DC 20433 Telephone: 202-473-1000 Internet: www.worldbank.org

    This work is a product of the staff of The World Bank with external contributions. The findings, interpretations, and conclusions expressed in this work do not necessarily reflect the views of The World Bank, its Board of Executive Directors, or the governments they represent.

    The World Bank does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this work. The boundaries, colors, denominations, and other information shown on any map in this work do not imply any judgment on the part of The World Bank concerning the legal status of any territory or the endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries.

    February 2016

    RIGHTS AND PERMISSIONS

    The material in this work is subject to copyright. Because The World Bank encourages dissemination of its knowledge, this work may be reproduced, in whole or in part, for noncommercial purposes as long as full attribution to this work is given.

    Any queries on rights and licenses, including subsidiary rights, should be addressed to the Publishing and Knowledge Division, The World Bank Group, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, DC 20433, USA; fax: 202-522-2625; e-mail: pubrights@worldbank.org.

  • ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

    The Promoting Green Urban Development in African Cities, Urban Environmental Profile for eThekwini, South Africa was prepared by a core study team led by Roland White (Global Lead: City Management, Governance and Financing - Task Team Leader) and included Chyi-Yun Huang (Urban Specialist) and a consultant team from AECOM including John Bachmann, Diane Dale, Brian Goldberg, Maritza Pechin and Dr. Jane Turpie (Anchor Environmental). Dr. Jeffrey Wielgus Yanovich (Consultant/Environmental and Natural Resource Economist) and Dr. Timm Kroeger (Senior Environmental Economist, The Nature Conservancy) contributed invaluable technical insights, critical review and guidance. Jonathan Schroeder (AECOM), Robert Pretorius (AECOM) and Chivashni Bachen (AECOM) provided secondary data collection and research support. Sonia Wheeler offered organizational and administrative support and Sarah Botta (AECOM) provided graphic design support.

    The document was prepared under the overall guidance of Francisco Ferreira (Chief Economist), Sameh Wahba (Practice Manager), Mukami Kariuki (Practice Manager) and Asad Alam (Country Director).

    This Urban Environmental Profile benefited immensely from close collaboration with representatives from the Government of South Africa, including the eThekwini Municipality Environmental Planning and Climate Protection Department (EPCPD), the Office of the City Manager, the Development Planning, Environment and Management Unit, and the Water and Sanitation Unit. The team would like to express its gratitude especially to Dr. Debra Roberts (EPCPD) for her close involvement and guidance, and to her team represented by Richard Boon, Joanne Boulle, Natasha Govender and Bheki Mdletshe for their support and important contributions made. Special thanks are also given to Mr. Adrian Peters (Chief Strategy Office) for his invaluable key insights.

    The study would not have been possible without the generous financial contribution of Korean Green Growth Partnership.

  • CONTENTS

    I. INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................................................... 5

    A. Methodology ...................................................................................................................................................................5

    B. Summary of Report .........................................................................................................................................................6

    II. ETHEKWINI CONTEXT ..................................................................................................................................................... 7

    A. Geophysical and Economic Context ................................................................................................................................7

    B. Climate Change Impacts and Challenges .......................................................................................................................11

    III. QUALITY OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL ASSETS .................................................................................................................. 13

    A. Terrestrial Assets ..........................................................................................................................................................15

    B. Aquatic Assets ..............................................................................................................................................................20

    C. Coastal Assets ...............................................................................................................................................................24

    D. Air ..................................................................................................................................................................................32

    IV. DIRECT DRIVERS AND CAUSES OF ENVIRONMENTAL VULNERABILITY AND DEGRADATION ............................................ 37

    A. Informal Settlements ....................................................................................................................................................37

    B. Effluent .........................................................................................................................................................................39

    C. Extraction of Natural Resources ...................................................................................................................................41

    D. Development of the Port of Durban .............................................................................................................................42

    E. Solid Waste ....................................................................................................................................................................43

    V. INSTITUTIONAL CHALLENGES ........................................................................................................................................ 45

    A. Overview .......................................................................................................................................................................45

    B. Prevailing Institutional Landscape .................................................................................................................................46

    C. Institutional Key Findings ..............................................................................................................................................55

    VI. KEY FINDINGS ............................................................................................................................................................... 59

    VII. BIBLIOGRAPHY .............................................................................................................................................................. 61

    VIII. APPENDIX .................................................................................................................................................................... 66

  • FIGURES

    Figure 1 Topographical Map of eThekwini Showing Major Rivers .........................................................................................7

    Figure 2 High and Low Growth Scenarios Metro Population ................................................................................................7

    Figure 3 eThekwini AIDS Progression ....................................................................................................................................8

    Figure 4 Percentage Contribution to GDP in 2012 ................................................................................................................8

    Figure 5 eThekwini Population Density .................................................................................................................................9

    Figure 6 Existing Informal Settlements .................................................................................................................................10

    Figure 7 Land Use Regulatory Framework ............................................................................................................................10

    Figure 8 Key Biodiversity Areas (KBA) in the Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany Hotspot .......................................................13

    Figure 9 Environmental Map ................................................................................................................................................14

    Figure 10 Different Asset Types in eThekwini in 2010 ..............................................................