Progression Toward Statehood

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Progression Toward Statehood. Articles of Confederation Era. Land Ordinance of 1785 Land divided into “sections” General idea of 160 acres. Articles of Confederation Era. Northwest Ordinance of 1787 Process for statehood Region organized as “territory” - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Transcript of Progression Toward Statehood

  • Progression Toward Statehood

  • Articles of Confederation EraLand Ordinance of 1785Land divided into sectionsGeneral idea of 160 acres

    Section320 acres Sect.160 acres

  • Articles of Confederation EraNorthwest Ordinance of 1787Process for statehoodRegion organized as territoryApply for statehood once territory has 60,000 people & a constitution

  • Creation of Indian TerritoryRemoval gives region populationTerritory but not considered for statehood

  • Homestead Act of 1862Free 160 acres if you live on & improve land for 5 yearsEncourages white migration/settlement of the West

  • Post-Civil War EraFive Tribes lost land due to war30 more tribes moved in to Indian TerritoryNot considered for statehoodUnassigned Lands in center becomes attractive to whites

  • Dawes Act of 1887Allotments in severaltyEach tribe member gets a specific amount of land in acresEnds reservations in Indian TerritoryU.S. govt can buy remaining landBacked by Curtis Act of 1898

  • ResistanceSome tribes tried to ignore it. Did not read mail.Crazy Snake Rebellion: Creek, Chitto Harjo and others attacked those Indians who accepted allotments, feds ended itKeetoowah: Cherokee, wanted to hold land in common

  • Land OpeningsElias C. Boudinot (Cherokee): encourages Five Tribes to sell unused land to U.S. govtBoomers:David L. Payne attempts to colonize Unassigned LandsWilliam Couch & his group forced out due to a military blockade

  • Land OpeningsSpringer AmendmentApril 22, 1889: Unassigned LandsHarrisons Hoss RaceCould claim 160 acres in race if:21 year old male21 year old completely single femaleCannot already own 160+ acres

  • Land OpeningsSooners: sneak across line early & make illegal claimsMake sure and know difference between Boomers and SoonersViolence often broke outWilliam Couch was shot/killed

  • Land OpeningsSept. 22, 1891: Sac & Fox, Pottawatomie, Iowa, & ShawneeApril 19, 1892: Cheyenne-ArapahoJockey/race horseHot air balloonHorse drawn busesStill problems with Sooners

  • Land OpeningsSept. 16, 1893: Cherokee OutletPre-race registration hopes to limit Soonersactually more in this raceWilliam Prettyman photographed race (see examples)May 3, 1895: Kickapoo landsLast raceOnly 80 acre plots

  • William Prettyman

  • Croft and Miller

  • Land Openings1896, Supreme Court rules Greer County isnt Texas & opens the landAdams-Onis Treaty used1901: Lottery used to open Kiowa-Comanche and Wichita landsBig Pasture & Wood Reserve are not open but will be auctioned off in 1906

  • White Settlers HardshipsNo official lawfear of Indian attackNew homes: Dugouts (most common) & soddiesUnwelcome visitors: insects, snakes, & other verminCold winters & Hot summersTowns

  • Twin TerritoriesWhites in Western Indian Territory gain permission to seek statehood & create Oklahoma Territoryonly western half---Organic Act 1890E.P. McCabe attempts to make OK a black state (Langston city & univ.)Indian Territory attempts to create State of SequoyahCongress says NO

  • First Territorial GovernmentGeorge W. Steele of Indiana=1st territorial governorCarpetbaggingSchools: public schools, Counties had discretion on segregation, University at Norman (OU), A & M college at Stillwater (OSU), and normal school at Edmond (UCO)Guthrie was territorial capital

  • Cherokee CommissionJerome CommissionLand allotments to western tribes, ended reservationsMore land openings

  • Territorial GovernorsSteele resigned after a year.William Renfrow was only Democrat---two more schools at Alva and LangstonBarnes---two mores schools at Tonkawa and WeatherfordJenkins---removed from office by T. RooseveltT.B. Ferguson---newspaper in WatongaFrank Frantz---last, led us into statehood

  • Only ONE New StateOK Enabling Act, 1906: OT & IT merged to create one new stateIndians would become citizens of new stateConstitutional Convention in GuthrieWilliam H. Murray as president99 Democrats, 12 Republicans, 1 Indep.

  • Oklahomas ConstitutionViewed as most progressiveInitiativeReferendumFemale suffrage in school elections8 hour work day (miners & govt workers)OK will be a dry stateJim Crow laws added to restrict rights of blacks

  • The 46th StarSept 17, 1907: people vote on Constitution & new officialsPres. Theodore Roosevelt reluctantly approves constitution on Nov 16, 1907Mock wedding in Guthrie of Indian & white shows union of Twin Territories1st Governor: Charles N. HaskellCapital: Guthrie