Westward Expansion Territorial Acquisitions and Statehood
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Westward ExpansionTerritorial Acquisitions and Statehood
Road to StatehoodU.S. acquired territories through treaties, cessions, or annexation.Territories were organized and given self-rule by CongressAs the territorys population grew and the government became organized, it would apply for statehoodConstitutional convention would convene,and upon ratification of a constitution, Congress would admit the state to the Union
Important WordsCession (To cede): When a land is transferred through a treaty or purchase.Annexation (To annex): When a smaller, less powerful entity, is merged with a larger more powerful nation. Often, this can be done forcibly.
Louisiana Purchase1803Napoleon Bonaparte, Emperor of FranceAfter war with Spain, re-acquired LouisianeHad difficulty managing colonies in CaribbeanThomas Jefferson, presidentBought 828,000 Square miles west of the Mississippi River to the Rocky MountainsTotal cost: $23,213,568Doubled the size of the U.S.Purchased land became the Missouri Territory
Adams-Onis Treaty1819James Monroe, PresidentJohn Quincy Adams, Secretary of State negotiated treaty with Luis de Onis of SpainUnder treaty, U.S. bought Florida from Spain for approximately $5,000,000.Ratified by 1821
Missouri Compromise1820In 1820, there were 22 states in The Union11 free, 11 slaveMissouri applied as a slave stateUnequal balance of free and slave statesHenry Clay, The Great CompromiserMaine enters as free state, Missouri entered as slave stateFuture states admitted to the Union north of MOs southern boundary would be free. Future states admitted to the Union south of MOs southern boundary would be slave.
Texan War of IndependenceAfter fierce war with Mexico from 1835-36, Texas became an independent republic.The Battle of the AlamoFebruary 23-March 6, 1836Spanish Mission in present day San AntonioDefended by about 180 White, Black, and Tejanos (Mexican Texans)4500-6000 Mexican troopsEvery defender killed, but held off Mexican Army and caused over 1500 casualtiesAllowed Sam Houston, Texan general, to organize for ultimate victory later
Manifest DestinyBelief that it was Americas mission and duty to expandTo spread the boundary of democratic freedoms across the continent Other political factors at work:High birth rate/population expansionFrontier land was cheap/freeLand ownership was a means for self-sufficiencyMaritime merchants saw an opportunity to build trading ports on the West Coast
The Mexican War1846-48Manifest Destiny fueled expansion westPresident John Tyler answered the Texas Question by offering Texas annexation as a slave state in 1845Sent agents to Mexico to explain U.S. positionMexico received information as a call to warMexico had a vision for a revival of New Spain
The Mexican War1846-48James K. Polk became president in 1845Sent troops to the Mexican border in 1846 as a show of force.Fighting erupted, and war ensued for several years.Zachary Taylor and Sam Houston: American GeneralsWar ended with Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo1848Mexican CessionExchange of $15,000,000 ($313,000,000 in 2008)U.S. acquires territory of present day CA, NV, UT, AZ, CO, and NM
Compromise of 18501848: Gold is found at Sutters Mill, CAGold rush caused massive boom in CAs population1849: CA applies for entry to Union as free state Also many squabbles over Mexican Cessation (AZ,NM, UT, CO)Henry ClayCompromise: CA would enter as free state other territories would determine status based on popular sovereignty
Kansas Nebraska Act1854Repealed the Missouri CompromiseNow, the border between Kansas and Nebraska was the new dividing line between slave and free states.Allowed for new states and territories to decide by popular sovereignty whether to be free or slave.Controversial, because Kansas and Nebraska were both north of the Missouri Compromise boundary. Some felt that slavery was creeping north.Lincoln-Douglas debates: responseStephen Douglas and Abraham LincolnLincoln, in a three hour speech, outlined the moral, legal, and economic reasons why slavery was wrong.Set the stage for Lincolns political future