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PPT-032-021 Slide 2 SAFE VEHICLE OPERATION SAFE VEHICLE OPERATION PPT-032-02 2 Slide 3 Setting Up Adjust your seat so your arms are slightly bent at the elbows when gripping the wheel. Keep your hands at the ten oclock and two oclock or nine oclock and three oclock positions on the steering wheel. Hold the wheel tightly enough so your palms do not slip off. Adjust side mirrors so you can either see the door handles or angled away to cover blind spots. PPT-032-02 3 Slide 4 Adjusting Side Mirrors for Blind Spots Adjusting Side Mirrors for Blind Spots Park car and have someone walk in both left and right blind spots. Set mirrors so person is in view. Check mirrors to see which areas remain invisible. Re-adjust and check again. PPT-032-02 4 Slide 5 Safe Driving Tips - Merging Merging requires attention to many different factors. Traffic moving at posted speeds = use the acceleration lane to speed up and match traffic flow. Use your signal and look for an opening where you can smoothly ease into traffic. If traffic is congested and moving slowly, proceed down the ramp slowly and look for an opening. Try to avoid stopping at the bottom of the ramp because it can disrupt traffic flow. PPT-032-02 5 Slide 6 6 Safe Driving Tips - Intersections Do not closely follow a large vehicle through an intersection with stoplights. You cant see if the light has changed. Leave enough space so you have a clear view of everything before proceeding. When making a left turn, slow down and yield if there is not a green arrow giving you the right-of- way. Dont turn your wheels until youre ready to move (if your vehicle is hit from behind, you could be pushed into oncoming traffic). Slide 7 Safe Driving Tips - Four-Way Stop First car to arrive at an intersection with a four-way stop (whether sign or traffic light) should be first to go. When it's unclear which vehicle arrived first, general rule is driver to the right has the right-of-way. Dont count on other drivers; proceed with caution. PPT-032-02 7 Slide 8 Vehicle Maintenance Neglecting maintenance can cause crashes. Monitor condition of and air pressure in your tires. Not doing so could cause blowout or a flat. Change wiper blades regularly. Check your owner's manual for a maintenance schedule, and stick to it. PPT-032-02 8 Slide 9 Vehicle Maintenance - Tires Check tire pressure regularly, including the spare (at least once a month). Inspect tires for: Uneven wear patterns Cracks Foreign objects Other signs of wear Ensure tire valves have valve caps. PPT-032-02 9 Slide 10 Vehicle Maintenance - Tires Check tire pressure before a long trip. Do not overload vehicle check tire info placard for maximum recommended load. If towing a trailer, remember that some weight of loaded trailer is transferred to vehicle. Try not to strike curb when parking. PPT-032-02 10 Slide 11 Flat Tire/Blowout - Highway At the first sign of trouble: Firmly grip the steering wheel Do not slam on brakes Take foot off the gas pedal Work vehicle toward the shoulder or exit If changing lanes, use turn signals Steer as vehicle slows down PPT-032-02 11 Slide 12 Flat Tire/Blowout - Highway Once off road, place reflective triangles Keep emergency flashers on Change tire, if you know how Keep away from traffic Call for professional help, if necessary Do not stand behind or next to vehicle PPT-032-02 12 Slide 13 Safe Driving Skills Safe Driving Skills Keep your eyes constantly moving: - Look up and down the road - Look to the sides of the road - Look into the rear view mirror Always leave yourself an out: - Try to find a place to head if a crash occurs - Think about other drivers blind spots Dont linger while passing. Dont follow too closely (tailgate). Avoid packs of vehicles. PPT-032-02 13 Slide 14 Safe Driving Skills Ensure other drivers see you keep headlights on both day and night. Always use turn signals well ahead of time. Never assume what other drivers will do. Maintain an average speed on highways; going too fast or too slow creates a hazard. PPT-032-02 14 Slide 15 Safe Driving Skills Use average traffic speed when merging. Think ahead avoid making sudden movements when exiting highways. Obey all traffic signs and signals. Keep your eyes on the road, not on a cell phone or music device. Watch for pedestrians, bicyclists and motorcyclists. Scan the road ahead for animals. PPT-032-02 15 Slide 16 Safe Driving Skills Stopping on Highways: Dont be a stationary object or semi-stationary obstacle. Stopping at the end of an entrance ramp is dangerous; learn to time a safe merge. Avoid stopping on the shoulder of road; exit highway before stopping, if possible. PPT-032-02 16 Slide 17 Safe Driving Tips - Sleepiness Driving sleepy is driving impaired! Reaction time and vision deteriorate when you are tired. Pull over, take a short cat nap or just close your eyes for a while. Sometimes taking a short walk will work. Stop every two to three hours if driving long distances. PPT-032-02 17 Slide 18 Safe Driving Tips - Familiarization Be familiar with your vehicle: Know what every button, switch and lever does. Know where the oil, brake fluid, engine coolant and window washer reservoirs are. Know how to fill those reservoirs. Know what every indicator light means. Know how to operate basic items, such as the defroster, wipers, radio and headlights. PPT-032-02 18 Slide 19 Safe Driving Tips -Nighttime Driving Traffic deaths are three times greater at night than during the day (Source: National Safety Council). Prepare car for nighttime driving: clean headlights, taillights, signal lights and windows (at least weekly). Have vehicle headlights properly aimed. Dont drink and drive! Reduce speed and increase following distances. Dont overdrive headlights should be able to stop inside illuminated area. PPT-032-02 19 Slide 20 Safe Driving Tips Nighttime Driving When following a vehicle, keep your headlights on low beam. If oncoming vehicle doesnt turn high beams down, look to the right side of road. If tired, stop and rest. If you have car problems, pull to the side of the road and place reflective devices; turn on emergency flashers. PPT-032-02 20 Slide 21 Safe Driving Tips - Seasonal Changes Winter driving = slippery roads, visibility issues, cold, etc. Spring = rain can cause slippery roads. Summer = high temperatures can cause vehicle problems; theres more traffic on roads. Fall = wet leaves on road can make it slippery. Daylight savings time = sun's position in sky changes causing darkness and glare. PPT-032-02 21 Slide 22 Safe Driving Tips - Rain Drive slowly and carefully especially on curves. Steer and brake with a light touch. When slowing/stopping, do not brake hard or lock the wheels could cause skidding. Maintain mild pressure on the brake pedal. Adjust your speed to the wet road conditions. PPT-032-02 22 Slide 23 Safe Driving Tips - Skids Remain calm. Ease your foot off the gas. Steer in the direction you want the front of the vehicle to go (steering into the skid). If vehicle has ABS (anti-lock brakes), avoid slamming on the brakes, brake firmly while steering into skid. PPT-032-02 23 Slide 24 Safe Driving Tips - Hydroplaning Occurs when water in front of tires builds up faster than vehicles weight can push it out of the way. Water pressure causes vehicle to rise up and slide on thin layer of water between tires and road. Can cause skidding, drifting out of lane, leaving roadway. To avoid: keep tires properly inflated, maintain good tread, slow down, avoid puddles. PPT-032-02 24 Slide 25 Safe Driving Tips - Hydroplaning If hydroplaning, do not brake or turn suddenly. Ease foot off gas until vehicle slows down and you can feel the road again. If you need to brake, do so gently, with light pumping actions. If vehicle has anti-lock brakes, brake normally. PPT-032-02 25 Slide 26 Safe Driving Tips - Winter Ensure vehicle wiper blades are in good condition and washer fluid is filled. Ensure vehicle battery is in good condition and appropriately charged. Clear snow/ice from all windows, lights, hood, trunk and top of vehicle before driving. Adjust your speed accordingly. Check tire pressure regularly. Dress warmly with layered clothing that is loose-fitting and lightweight. PPT-032-02 26 Slide 27 Safe Driving Tips - Winter If in vehicle and stranded due to road conditions: Stay in vehicle. Display trouble sign (ex: brightly-colored cloth on antenna). Occasionally run engine with heater on to keep warm. Keep exhaust pipe free of snow and open a window to avoid carbon monoxide poisoning. Watch for signs of frostbite and hypothermia. PPT-032-02 27 Slide 28 Safe Driving Tips - Winter If in vehicle and stranded due to road conditions: Do minor exercises to keep up circulation. Clap hands and move arms and legs frequently. Try not to stay in one position for too long. Use newspapers, maps, mats, etc., for warmth. Avoid drinking fluids containing caffeine or alcohol: can quicken effects of cold. PPT-032-02 28 Slide 29 Safe Driving Tips - Winter Stopping Distances and Wet/Snowpack/Icy Roads: Vehicle may travel 4x the stopping distance than on dry road. Dry pavement vehicle traveling 70 mph requires 600 feet to stop; wet road requires 800 feet. Snowpacked road requires approximately 1300 feet stopping distance @ 70 mph. Icy road requires 2,500 feet @ 70 mph. PPT-032-02 29 Slide 30 Safe Driving Tips - Winter Winterizing Vehicles: Ensure ice scraper and windshield de-icer are on board. Carry spare set of wiper blades. Carry kitty litter, oil dry or sand for traction. Carry blankets, flashlight, road flares. Have lock de-icer available. PPT-032-02 30 Slide 31 Safe Driving Tips Vehicle Fires Get yourself and all others out of and away from the vehicle. Move a safe distance from the vehicle and call fire department. Do not stand near vehicle bumpers. Remain away from vehicle; do not attempt to get back into burning vehicle. If trained, are comfortable and fire is small, use ap